University of Wisconsin–Madison

George L. Mosse

  • George L. Mosse Bibliography

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    WORKS BY GEORGE L. MOSSE

    Prepared by John Tortorice
    Memorial Library, University of Wisconsin, Madison

    (In general, interviews and book reviews are excluded)

    1946

    1. The Idea of Sovereignty in England, from Sir Thomas Smith to Sir Edward Coke, Thesis, Harvard, 1946.
    2. “Thomas Hobbes: Jurisprudence at the Cross-Roads,” in University of Toronto Quarterly, XV, 4, July 1946, pp. 346-355.

    1947

    1. (in collaboration with William H. Seiler), Outline and Sources for a History of Western Civilization. Europe and the United States from the Middle Ages to the Congress of Vienna, Dubuque (Iowa), W.C. Brown Co., 1947, pp. 81.
    2. “The Anti-League: 1844-1846,” in Economic History Review, XVII, 2, 1947, pp. 134-142.
    3. “Change and Continuity in the Tudor Constitution,” in Speculum, XXII, 1, January 1947, pp. 18-28.
    4. (in collaboration with David Hecht), “Liturgical Uniformity and Absolutism in the Sixteenth Century,” in Anglican Theological Review, XXIX, 3, July 1947, pp. 158-166.

    1948

    1. “The Influence of Jean Bodin’s ‘Republic’ on English Political Thought,” in Medievalia et Humanistica, V, 1948, pp. 73-83.

    1949

    1. “Freshman History: Reality or Metaphysics?,” in The Social Studies, XL, 3, March 1949, pp. 99-103.
    2. (in collaboration with Everett W. Hall and John L. McGalliard), “The Humanities at the State University of Iowa,” in The Humanities in General Education, Edited by Earl J. McGrath, Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, pp. 106-136.

    1950

    1. The Struggle for Sovereignty in England, from the Reign of Queen Elizabeth to the Petition of Right, East Lansing, Michigan State College Press, 1950, pp. vi, 191.
    2. The Struggle for Sovereignty in England, from the Reign of Queen Elizabeth to the Petition of Right, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1950, pp. vi, 191. [see n.10]

    1951

    1. (in collaboration with Philip A.M. Taylor), Outline and Sources for a History of Western Civilization. Europe and the United States from the Congress of Vienna to the Present Time, Dubuque (Iowa), Wm. C. Brown, 1951, pp. 86. [see n. 3]

    1952

    1. “Die amerikanische Geschichtsschreibung. Ein Überblick,” in Die Welt als Geschichte, XII, 1952, pp. 264-273.
    2. “Puritanism and Reason of State in Old and New England,” in William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., IX, 1, January 1952, pp. 67-80.
    3. “Sir John Fortescue and the Problem of Papal Power,” in Medievalia et Humanistica, VII, 1952, pp. 89-94.
    4. “Change and Continuity in the Tudor Constitution,” in The Making of English History, Edited by Robert Livigston Schuyler and Herman Ausubel, New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1952, pp. 187-195. [see n. 5]

    1953

    1. The Reformation, New York, Henry Holt & Co., 1953, pp. 101 (Berkshire Studies in European History).

    1954

    1. “The Assimilation of Machiavelli in English Thought: The Casuistry of William Perkins and William Ames,” in Huntington Library Quarterly, XVII, 4, August 1954, pp. 315-326.
    2. “Puritan Political Thought and the ‘Cases of Conscience’,” in Church History, XXIII, 2, June 1954, pp. 109-118.

    1955

    1. “The Christian Statesman,” in History of Ideas Newsletter, I, 2, March 1955, pp. 2-4.
    2. “Puritanism,” in The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Editor-in-chief: Samuel Macauley Jackson, Editor-in-chief of Supplementary Volumes: Lefferts A. Loetscher, Grand Rapids (Mich.), Baker Book House, 1955, pp. 931-933.

    1956

    1. “A Challenge to Phi Eta Sigma,” in Forum of Phi Eta Sigma, January 1956, pp. 22-23.
    2. “The Importance of Jacques Saurin in the History of Casuistry and the Enlightenment,” in Church History, XXV, 3, September 1956, pp. 195-210.

    1957

    1. Calvinism: Authoritarian or Democratic?, New York, Rinehart, 1957, pp. 25 (Source Problems in World Civilization).
    2. The Holy Pretence: A Study in Christianity and Reason of State from William Perkins to John Winthrop, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1957, pp. 159.
    3. “The Image of the Jew in German Popular Culture: Felix Dahn and Gustav Freytag,” in Leo Baeck Institute. Year Book II, London, Secker & Warburg, 1957, pp. 218-227.
    4. “The Pragmatism of Freshman History,” in The Social Studies, XLVIII, 8, December 1957, pp. 289-292.
    5. Europe in Review. Readings and Sources since 1500, Edited with introductions by George L. Mosse [and others], Chicago, Rand McNally, 1957, pp. 573 (Rand McNally History Series).

    1958

    1. “Culture, Civilization and German Anti-Semitism,” in Judaism, VII, 3, Summer 1958, pp. 256-267.

    1959

    1. “The Hope for Germany,” in The Progressive, XXIII, 5, May 1959, pp. 18-21.

    1960

    1. “Puritan Radicalism and the Enlightenment,” in Church History, XXIX, 4, December 1960, pp. 424-439.
    2. The Reformation, [2nd edition], New York, Henry Holt & Co., 1960, pp. vi, 103 (Berkshire Studies in European History). [see n. 17]

    1961

    1. The Culture of Western Europe: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. An Introduction, Chicago, Rand McNally, 1961, pp. 439 (Rand McNally History Series).
    2. “The Mystical Origins of National Socialism,” in Journal of the History of Ideas, XXIII, 1, January-March 1961, pp. 81-96.
    3. “Culture, Civilization and German Anti-Semitism,” in Davar (Buenos Aires), 1961, pp. 47-64. [see n. 29]

    1962

    1. “’German Kultur of European Spirits’: Old Ideology in New Garb,” in The Wiener Library Bulletin, XVI, 3 July 1962, p. 48.
    2. “Le origini mistiche del nazionalsocialismo,” trad. di Alessandro Serpieri, in Il Ponte, XVIII, 1, gennaio 1962, p. 30-40. [see n. 34]

    1963

    1. The Culture of Western Europe: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. An Introduction, London, John Murray, 1963, pp. 437. [see n. 33]
    2. The Reformation, [3rd revised edition], New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963, pp. 136 (Berkshire Studies in European History). [see n. 17]

    1964

    1. The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich, New York, Grosset & Dunlap, 1964, pp. vi, 373.
    2. “The Deputy’s Dilemma,” in The Progressive, XXVIII, 6, June 1964, pp. 38-41.
    3. “Puritanism Reconsidered,” in Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte, LV, 1, 1964, pp. 37-47.
    4. “Romentic and Irrational: Pitfalls of a ‘Non-Political’ Youth Movement,” The Wiener Library Bulletin, XVIII, 3, July 1964, p. 37.
    5. The Intellectual Foundations of National Socialism, Seminar held at Stanford University, European Studies Seminar Center, Autumn 1963, Conducted by George Mosse, Stanford (Calif.), [s.n.], 1964, ca. 150 leaves.
    6. Europe in Review. Readings and Sources since 1500, Edited, with introductions, by George L. Mosse [and others], [Revised edition], Chicago, Rand McNally, 1964, pp. xxiii, 614 (Rand McNally History Series). [see n. 28]
    7. “Puritan Radicalism and the Enlightenment,” in The Role of Religion in Modern European History, Edited by Sidney Alexander Burell, New York, Macmillan, 1964, pp. 65-77. [see n. 31]

    1965

    1. “The Corporate State and the Conservative Revolution in Weimar Germany,” in Gouvernés et gouvernants, 5e partie, Période contemporaine, Recueils de la Société Jean Bodin pour l’histoire comparative des institutions, t. 26, Bruxelles, Editions de la Librairie Encyclopédique, 1965, pp. 213-242.
    2. “Die deutsche Rechte und die Juden,” in Entscheidungsjahr 1932. Zur Judenfrage in der Endphase der Weimarer Republik. Ein Sammelband, herausgegeben von Werner Eugen Mosse unter Mitwirkung von Arnold Paucker, Tübingen, Mohr, 1965, pp. 183-246.

    1966

    1. “Comments,” in Seminar on Preservation and Restoration, Williamsburg (Va.), 1963. Historic Preservation Today, [Essays presented to the Seminar on Preservation and Restoration, Williamsburg, Virginia, September 8-11, 1963, Sponsored by the National Trust for Historic Preservation and Colonial Williamsburg], Charlottesville, Distributed by University Press of Virginia, 1966, pp. 38-42 and 73-77.
    2. “E. Nolte on ‘Three Faces of Fascism’,” in Journal of the History of Ideas, XXVII, 4, October-December 1966, pp. 621-625.
    3. “The Genesis of Fascism,” in “International Fascism 1920-1945,” in Journal of Contemporary History, I, 1, January 1966, pp. 14-26.
    4. “International Fascism 1920-1945,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966, pp. vi, 201 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 1, no. 1). [see n. 50]
    5. “Left Wing Intellectuals between the Wars,” [Edited by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966, pp. 196 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 1, no. 2).
    6. Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural, and Social Life in the Third Reich, Edited by George L. Mosse, Translations by Salvatore Attanasio and others, [1st ed.], New York, Grosset & Dunlap, 1966, pp. xli, 386.
    7. “1914,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966, pp. 210 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 1, no. 3).
    8. “Socialism and War. The Dismissal of Jellicoe. Munich: The Czech Dilemma. Russians in Germany, 1900-1914,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966, pp. 202 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 1, no. 4).
    9. The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich, London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966, pp. viii, 373. [see n. 40]
    10. “International Fascism, 1920-1945,” Edited by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse, New York, Harper & Row, 1966, pp. x, 197 (Journal of Contemporary History, 1. Harper Torchbooks, The Academy Library). [see n. 52]
    11. Internationaler Faschismus, 1920-1945, herausgegeben von Walter Laqueur und George L. Mosse, Munich, Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, 1966, pp. 298. [see n. 52]
    12. “The Left Wing Intellectuals between the Wars, 1919-1939,” Edited by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse, New York, Harper & Row, 1966, pp. 196 (Journal of Contemporary History, 2. Harper Torchbooks, The Academy Library). [see n. 53]
    13. Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural, and Social Life in the Third Reich, Edited by George L. Mosse, Translations by Salvatore Attanasio and others, London, W. H. Allen, 1966, pp. xliii, 386. [see n. 54]
    14. “1914: The Coming of the First World War,” Edited by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse, New York, Harper & Row, 1966, pp. 296 (Journal of Contemporary History, 3. Harper Torchbooks, The Academy Library). [see n. 55]

    1967

    1. “Concluding Remarks,” in “Education and Social Structure,” in Journal of Contemporary History, II, 3, July 1967, pp. 217-220.
    2. “The Influence of the Völkisch Idea on German Jewry,” in Studies of the Leo Baeck Institute, Edited by Max Kreutzberger, New York, Frederik Unger, 1967, pp. 81-115.
    3. “Education and Social Structure,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1967, pp. 220 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 2, no. 3).
    4. “History Today in USA, Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Poland, India, Czechoslovakia, Spain, Holland, Sweden,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1967, pp. 191 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 2, no. 1).
    5. “Literature and Society,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1967, pp. 227 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 2, no. 2).
    6. “Free Speech and the University,” in Madison Select, May 1967, p. 10.
    7. “Religion and Reason of State,” in Interpreting European History, Edited by Brison D. Gooch, Homewood (Ill.), Dorsey Press, 1967, pp. 166-171.
    8. “Education and Social Structure in Twentieth Century,” Edited by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse, New York, Harper & Row, 1967, pp. 218 (Journal of Contemporary History, 6. Harper Torchbooks, The Academy Library). [see n. 65]
    9. “Fascismo internazionale 1920-1945,” in Dialoghi del XX, aprile 1967, pp. 224. [see n. 52]
    10. Kriegsausbruch 1914, “Deutsche Buchausgabe,” des Journal of Contemporary History, herausgegeben von Walter Laqueur und George L. Mosse. Munich, Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, 1967, pp. 309. [see n. 55]
    11. “Literature and Politics in the Twentieth Century,” Edited by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse, New York, Harper & Row, 1967, pp. 219 (Journal of Contemporary History, 5. Harper Torchbooks, The Academy Library). [see n. 67]
    12. “The New History: Trends in Historical Research and Writing since World War II,” Edited by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse, New York, Harper & Row, 1967, pp. 265 (Journal of Contemporary History, 4. Harper Torchbooks, The Academy Library). [see n. 66]

    1968

    1. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger), Europe in the Sixteenth Century, London, Longmans, 1968, pp. xiii, 399 (A General History of Europe).
    2. “Fascism and the Intellectuals,” in The Nature of Fascism: Proceedings of a Conference Held by the Reading University Graduate School of Contemporary European Studies, Edited by Stuart J. Woolf, London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1968, pp. 205-226 (Reading University Studies on Contemporary Europe. Studies in Fascism, 2).
    3. “Houston Stewart Chamberlain,” Introduction to Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, Translated from the German by John Lees, New York, Howard Fertig, 1968, pp. v-lxiii.
    4. “Max Nordau and His ‘Degeneration’,” Introduction to Max Nordau, Degeneration, New York, Howard Fertig, 1968, pp. xv-xxxiv.
    5. “The Middle East,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1968, pp. 273 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 3, no. 3).
    6. “Reappraisals: A New Look at History. The Social Sciences and History,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1968, pp. 252 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 3, no. 2).
    7. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger), Europe in the Sixteenth Century, New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968, pp. xiii, 399 (A General History of Europe). [see n. 75]
    8. “The Genesis of Fascism,” in Fascism: An Anthology, Edited by Nathanael Greene, New York, Crowell, 1968, pp. 3-14. [see n. 51]
    9. The Holy Pretence: A Study in Christianity and Reason of State from William Perkins to John Winthrop, New York, Howard Fertig, 1968, pp. 159. [see n. 25]
    10. Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural, and Social Life in the Third Reich, Edited by George L. Mosse, Translations by Salvatore Attanasio and others, New York, Grosset & Dunlap, 1968, pp. xli, 386. [see n. 54]
    11. Le origini culturali del Terzo Reich, Traduzione di Francesco Saba Sardi, Milan, Il Saggiatore, 1968, pp. 492 (La cultura. Biblioteca di storia, 22). [see n. 40]
    12. The Struggle for Sovereignty in England, from the Reign of Queen Elizabeth to the Petition of Right, New York, Octagon Books, 1968, pp. vi, 191. [see n. 10]

    1969

    1. “History, Anthropology and Mass Movements,” in American Historical Review, LXXV, 2, December 1969, pp. 447-452.
    2. “The Great Depression,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1969, pp. 201 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 4, no. 4).
    3. “Urbanism: The City in History,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1969, pp. 204 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 4, no. 3).
    4. From “The Culture of Western Europe,” in A Century for Debate, 1789-1914: Problems in the Interpretation of European History, Edited by Peter N. Stearns, New York, Dodd, Mead & Co., 1969, pp. 35-39 and 505-511.
    5. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger), L’Europa del Cinquecento, Traduzione di Maria Teresa Grendi, Bari, Laterza, 1969, pp. 533 (Collezione storica). [see n. 75]
    6. “Fascism and the Intellectuals,” in The Nature of Fascism, Edited by Stuart J. Woolf, [1st American Edition], New York, Random House, 1969, pp. 205-226 (Reading University Studies on Contemporary Europe, 2). [see n. 76]
    7. Linksintellektuelle zwischen den beiden Weltkriegen, herausgegeben von Walter Laqueur und George L. Mosse, Munich, Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, 1969, pp. 319 (Sammlung Dialog, 18). [see n. 53]

    1970

    1. Germans and Jews: The Right, the Left, and the Search for a “Third Force” in Pre-Nazi Germany, [1st edition], New York, Howard Fertig, 1970, pp. 260.
    2. “Changes in Religious Thought,” in The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. IV, The Decline of Spain and the Thirty Years War, 1609-48/59, Edited by J.P. Cooper, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1970, pp. 169-201.
    3. “The Heritage of Socialist Humanism,” in “The Legacy of German Refugee Intellectuals,” in Salmagundi, Fall 1969 – Winter 1970, pp. 123-139.
    4. “The Rightist Reaction: French Theorists of Law and Order,” in The Times Literary Supplement, 14 May, 1970, pp. 525-527.
    5. “Generations in Conflict,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1970, pp. 190 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 5, no. 1).
    6. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger), L’Europe au XVI siècle, Traduit de l’anglais par S. Chassagne, Paris, Sirey, 1970, pp. 392 (Historire de l’Europe, 6). [see n. 75]
    7. “The Genesis of Fascism,” in Manners, Morals, Movements: The History of European Man, 1500 to the Present, Edited by Werner Braatz [and others], Berkeley (Calif.), McCutchan Pub. Corp., 1970, pp. 300-302. [see n. 51]
      101. Kriegsausbruch 1914, herausgegeben von Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse, Munich, Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, 1970, pp. 314 (Sammlung Dialog, 44). [see n. 72]

    1971

    1. “Die Linke in ihrer Stellung zum Nationalsozialismus – das Jüdische Problem,” in Zur Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, [Die zusammenfassende Darstellung der auf der Tagung im Sommer 1970 gehaltenen Vorträge ist von Meir Gilon hebräisch verfasst und von Alisa Michaelis ins Deutsche übersetzt worden], Jerusalem, Jerusalem Acad. Press, 1971, pp. 94-100 (Veröffentlichungen des Leo Baeck Instituts Jerusalem zur Geschichte der Juden in Mitteleuropa).
    2. “Cesarism, Circuses and Monuments,” in Journal of Contemporary History, VI, 2, April 1971, pp. 167-182.
    3. “German Socialists and the Jewish Question in the Weimar Republic,” in Leo Baeck Institute. Year Book XVI, London, Secker & Warburg, 1971, pp. 123-151.
    4. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger), Europe in the Sixteenth Century, London, Longmans, 1971, pp. xiii, 399 (A General History of Europe). [see n. 75]
    5. Germans and Jews: The Right, the Left, and the Search for a “Third Force” in Pre-Nazi Germany, New York, Grosset & Dunlap, 1971, pp. 260. [see n. 94]
    6. Germans and Jews: The Right, the Left, and the Search for a “Third Force” in Pre-Nazi Germany, London, Orbach & Chambers, 1971, pp. 260. [see n. 94]
    7. “Mutamenti nel pensiero religioso,” in Storia del mondo moderno, Vol. IV, La decadenza della Spagna e la Guerra dei trent’anni (1610-1648/59), a cura di J.P. Cooper, Milan, Garzanti, 1971, pp. 190-228. [see n. 95]
    8. “I socialisti tedeschi e la questione ebraica durante la repubblica di Weimar,” in Storia contemporanea, II, n. 1, marzo 1971, pp. 17-52. [see n. 104]
    9. “The Youth Movement,” in Forces of Order and Movement in Europe since 1815, Edited by Robert J. Scally, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1971, pp. 50-70.

    1972

    1. “Literature and Society in Germany,” in Literature and Western Civilization, Edited by David Daiches and Anthony Thorlby, Vol. II, London, Aldus Books, 1972, pp. 267-299.
    2. “The French Right and the Working Classes: Les Jaunes,” in Journal of Contemporary History, VII, 3-4, July-October 1972, pp. 185-208.113. “The Heritage of Socialist Humanism,” in The Legacy of German Refugee Intellectuals, Edited by Robert Boyers, [1st Edition], New York, Schocken Books, 1972, pp. 123-139. [see n. 96]
    3. Kryzys ideologii niemieckiej; rodowód intelektualny Trzeciej Rzeszy, Tlumaczyl Tadeusz Evert, Warszawa, Czytelnik, 1972, pp. 452. [see n. 40]

    1973

    1. “Mass Politics and the Political Liturgy of Nationalism,” in Nationalism: The Nature and Evolution of an Idea, [A series of public lectures arranged by the History of Ideas Unit in the Research School of Social Sciences of the Australian National University], Edited by Eugene Kamenka, Canberra, Australian National University Press, 1973, pp. 38-54.
    2. “Comment,” in “Hitler’s Concept of ‘Lebensraum’: The Psychological Basis,” in History of Childhood Quarterly: The Journal of Psychohistory, I, 2, Fall 1973, pp. 230-232.117. “Left Wing Intellectuals and the Jewish Problem in the ‘Thirties’ and in the ‘Sixties’,” in Dispersion and Unity, XVII-XVIII, 1973, pp. 106-116.
    3. “The Marquis de Morés,” in North Dakota Quarterly, Winter 1973, pp. 44-47.
    4. “The Poet and the Exercise of Political Power: Gabriele D’Annunzio,” in Yearbook of Comparative and General Literature, XXII, 1973, pp. 32-41.
    5. La cultura Nazi: la vida intelectual, cultural y social en el Tercer Reich, Tr. del inglés por J. C. García Borrón y Enrique de Obregón, Barcelona, Grijalbo, 1973, pp. 398. [see n. 54]
    6. “The Genesis of Fascism,” in Western Civilization: Recent Interpretations from 1715 to the Present, Edited by C. Stewart Doty, New York, Thomas Crowell Co., II, 1973, pp. 501-511. [see n. 51]
    7. “The Genesis of Fascism,” in An Age of Controversy: Discussion Problems in 20th Century European History, Edited by Gordon Wright and Arthur mejia (alternate edition), New York, Dodd, Mean & Company, 1973, pp. 168-177. [see n. 51]

    1974

    1. “Was sie wirklich lasen: Marlitt, Ganghofer, May,” in Popularität und Trivialität. 4. Wisconsin Workshop, herausgegeben von Reinhold Grimm und Jost Hermand, Frankfurt/M., Athenäum-Verlag, 1974, pp. 101-120.
    2. “Tod, Zeit, und Geschichte: Die völkische Utopie der Überwindung,” in Deutsches utopisches Denken im 20. Jahrhundert, herausgegeben von Reinhold Grimm und Jost Hermand, Stuttgart-Berlin-Cologne-Mainz, Kohlhammer, 1974, pp. 50-69.
    3. Joshua A. Fishman; George L. Mosse; and Laurene J. Silberstein, Discussants. “Contemporary Jewish Civilization on the American Campus: Research and Teaching,” in American Jewish Historical Quarterly, LXIII, 4, 1974, pp. 369-378.
    4. Historians in Politics, Edited by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse, London-Beverly Hills (Calif.), Sage Publications, 1974, pp. viii, 352 (Sage Readers in 20th Century History, no. 1).
    5. Jews and Non-Jews in Eastern Europe 1918-1945, Edited by Bela Vago and George L. Mosse, [Based on papers presented at the International Symposium on the Interaction between Jews and the Peoples of East-Central Europe, 1918-1945, held at the University of Haifa, 1-4 May 1972], New York, John Wiley / Tel Aviv, Israel Universities Press, 1974, pp. xvii, 334.
    6. The Culture of Western Europe: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, 2nd edition, Rand McNally College Pub. Co., 1974, pp. 410 (Rand McNally History Series). [see n. 33]
    7. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger), Europa en el siglo XVI, Madrid, Aguilar, 1974, pp. 418. [see n. 75]
    8. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger), L’Europa del Cinquecento, Traduzione di Maria Teresa Grendi, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1974, pp. 532 (Universale Laterza. 278). [see n. 75]

    1975

    1. The Nationalization of the Masses: Political Symbolism and Mass Movements in Germany from the Napoleonic Wars through the Third Reich, New York, Howard Fertig, 1975, pp. xiv, 252.
    2. Police Forces in History, Edited by George L. Mosse, London-Beverly Hills (Calif.), Sage Publications, 1975, pp. viii, 333 (Sage Readers in 20th Century History, no. 2).
    3. “On Liars and Lying,” in Salmagundi, Spring 1975, pp. 95-111.
    4. La nazionalizzazione delle masse. Simbolismo politico e movimenti di massa in Germania dalle guerre napoleoniche al Terzo Reich, [Introduzione all’edizione italiana di Renzo De Felice], Traduzione di Livia De Felice, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1975, pp. XIX, 253 (Nuova collana storica). [see n. 131]

    1976

    1. “Die NS-Kampfbühne,” in Geschichte im Gegenwartsdrama, herausgegeben von Reinhold Grimm und Jost Hermand, Stuttgart-Berlin-Cologne-Mainz, Kohlhammer, 1976, pp. 24-36.
    2. “Comment” on “Hitler as the Bound Delegate of His Mother” by Helm Stierlin, in History of Childhood Quarterly: The Journal of Psychohistory, III, 4, 1976, pp. 505-507.
    3. “Albert Speer’s Hitler, Spandau: The Secret Diaries,” in Quadrant, XX, 10, October 1976, pp. 53-55.
    4. “Mass Politics and the Political Liturgy of Nationalism,” in Nationalism: The Nature and Evolution of an Idea, [A series of public lectures arranged by the History of Ideas Unit in the Research School of Social Sciences of the Australian National University], Edited by Eugene Kamenka, New York, St. Martin’s Press, 1976, pp. 38-54. [see n. 115]
    5. “Mass Politics and the Political Liturgy of Nationalism,” in Nationalism: The Nature and Evolution of an Idea, Edited by Eugene Kamenka, London, Edward Arnold, 1976, pp. 38-54. [see n. 115]
    6. Die Nationalisierung der Massen. Die politische Symbolik und Massenbewegung in Deutschland von den Napoleonischen Kriegen bis zum Dritten Reich, Frankfurt/M.-Berlin-Wien, Ullstein, 1976, pp. 283. [see n. 131]
    7. La nazionalizzazione delle masse. Simbolismo politico e movimenti di massa in Germania dalle guerre napoleoniche al Terzo Reich, [Introduzione all’edizione italiana di Renzo De Felice], Traduzione di Livia De Felice, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1976, pp. XIX, 253 (Nuova collana storica). [see n. 131]

    1977

    1. Intervista sul nazismo, A cura di Michael A. Ledeen, Traduzione di Giovanni Ferrara, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1977, pp. 152 (Saggi tascabili Laterza, 35).
    2. The Jews and the German War Experience, 1914-1918, New York, Leo Baeck Institute, 1977, pp. 28 (Leo Baeck Memorial Lecture: 21).
    3. “George Lichtheim: Sketch for an Intellectual Portrait,” in Varieties of Marxism, Edited by S. Avineri, The Van Leer Jerusalem Foundation, Martin Nijhoff, The Hague, 1977, pp. 1-6.
    4. The Nationalization of the Masses: Political Symbolism and Mass Movements in Germany from the Napoleonic Wars through the Third Reich, New York, Meridian, 1977, pp. 270. [see n. 131]
    5. (Michael A. Ledeen, interviewer), “On Nazism,” in Society, XIV, 4, May-June 1977, pp. 69-73. [see n. 142]

    1978

    1. Toward the Final Solution: A History of European Racism, 1st Edition, New York, Howard Fertig, 1978, pp. xvi, 277.
    2. “La sinistra europea e l’esperienza della guerra (Germania e Francia),” in Rivoluzione e reazione in Europa 1917-1924. Convegno storico internazionale (Perugia, 1978), Vol. II, Rome, Mondo operaio-Avanti!, 1978, pp. 151-167.
    3. “Art and Politics in Germany: A Comment,” in Central European History, XI, 2, June 1978, pp. 184-188.
    4. “Norbert Elias: The Civilizing Process,” in New German Critique, 15, Autumn 1978, pp. 178-183.
    5. Der nationalsozialistische Alltag. So lebte man unter Hitler, Königstein/Ts., Athenäum Verlag, 1978, pp. IX, 389. [see n. 54]
    6. Nazism: A Historical and Comparative Analysis of National Socialism, An Interview with Michael A. Ledeen, New Brunswick (N.J.), Transaction Book, 1978, pp. 134 (Issues in Contemporary Civilization).
    7. Nazism: A Historical and Comparative Analysis of National Socialism, An Interview with Michael A. Ledeen, Oxford, Blackwell, 1978, pp. 137 (Issues in Contemporary Civilization).
    8. Rassismus. Ein Krankheitssymptom in der europäischen Geschichte des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, Königstein/Ts., Athenäum Verlag, 1978, pp. 222.
    9. Toward the Final Solution: A History of European Racism, London, Dent & Son, 1978, pp. xii, 277. [see n. 147]

    1979

    156.“Toward a General Theory of Fascism,” in International Fascism: New Thoughts and New Approaches… [see n. 161], pp. 1-41.

    1. L’opera di Aldo Moro nella crisi della democrazia parlamentare in occidente. Intervista a cura di Alfonso Alfonsi, Traduzione di Alfonso Alfonsi e RiccardoDuranti, in Aldo Moro, L’intelligenza e gli avvenimenti. Testi 1959-1978. Con note di Gianni Baget Bozzo, Mario Medici, Dalmazio Mongillo e un intervento di George L. Mosse, a cura della Fondazione Aldo Moro, Milan, Garzanti, 1979, pp. IX-XLVII.

    158.“Hitler Redux,” in The New Republic, CLXXX, 24, June 16, 1979, pp. 21-24.
    159.“National Cemeteries and National Revival: The Cult of the Fallen Soldiers in Germany,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XIV, 1, January 1979, pp. 1-20.

    1. “Arbeiterkultur,” herausgegeben von Gerhard A. Ritter. Überarbeitete deutsche Ausgabe des Heftes “Worker’s Culture” der Journal of Contemporary History, Bd. 13, Nr. 2, April 1978, herausgegeben von Walter Laqueur und George L. Mosse, Königstein/Ts., Hain, 1979, pp. 291 (Neue Wissenschaftliche Bibliothek 104 Geschichte).
    2. International Fascism: New Thoughts and New Approaches, Edited by George L. Mosse, London-Beverly Hills (Calif.), Sage Publications, 1979, pp. 386 (Sage Readers in 20th Century History, no. 3).
    3. Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer. Die völkischen Ursprünge des Nationalsozialismus, Königstein/Ts., Athenäum Verlag, 1979, pp. VII, 368. [see n. 40]

    1980

    1. Masses and Man: Nationalist and Fascist Perceptions of Reality, 1st Edition, New York, Howard Fertig, 1980, pp. xiii, 362.
    2. “Faschismus und Avantgarde,” in Faschismus und Avantgarde, herausgegeben von Reinhold Grimm und Jost Hermand, Königstein/Ts., Athenäum Verlag, 1980, pp. 133-148.
    3. “Soldatenfriedhöfe und nationale Wiedergeburt. Der Gefallenenkult in Deutschland,” in Kriegserlebnis. Der Erste Weltkrieg in der literarischen Gestaltung und symbolischen Deutung der Nationen, herausgegeben von Klaus Vondung, Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1980, pp. 241-261.
    4. (in collaboration with Steven George Lampert), “Weimar Intellectuals and the Rise of National Socialism,” in Survivors, Victims and Perpetrators: Essays on the Nazi Holocaust, Edited by Joel E. Dimsdale, Washington, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 1980, pp. 79-105.
    5. “Zum deutschen Soldatenlied,” in Kriegserlebnis: Der Erste Weltkrieg in der literarischen Gestaltung und symbolischen Deutung der Nationen, herausgegeben von Klaus Vondung, Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1980, pp. 331-333.
    6. “La nationalisation des masses, Gymnastique tir et constitution du sentiment en Allemagne,” in “Aimez vous les Stades?,” in Recherches, 43, Avril 1980, pp. 59-75.
    7. Il razzismo in Europa dalle origini all’Olocausto, Traduzione di Livia De Felice, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1980, pp. XI, 277 (Storia e società). [see n. 147]
    8. Toward the Final Solution: A History of European Racism, New York, Harper Colophon Books, 1980, pp. 235. [see n. 147]

    1981

    1. “War and the Appropriation of Nature,” in Germany in the Age of Total War: Essays in Honour of Francis Carsten, Edited by Volker R. Berghahn and Martin Kitchen, London, Croom Helm / Totowa (N.J.), Barnes & Noble Books, 1981, pp. 102-122.
    2. “Retreat to the Status Quo,” in “Left-Wing Fascism,” in Society, XVIII, 4, May-June 1981, pp. 39-40.
    3. “Amistad y conciencia nacional: Promesa y fracaso de nacionalismo alemán,” in Rumbos, 5, otoño 1981, pp. 29-46.
    4. “Razzismo,” in Enciclopedia del Novecento, Vol. V, Rome, Istituto dell’Enciclopedia Italiana, 1981, pp. 1052-1063.
    5. “Cimiteri nazionali e revival nazionalista: il culto dei caduti in Germania,” in Laboratorio di scienze dell’uomo, I, 2, giugno 1981, pp. 143-160. [see n. 159]
    6. The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich, New York, Schocken Books, 1981, pp. x, 373. [see n. 40]
    7. The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich, New York, Howard Fertig, 1981, pp. vi, 373. [see n. 40]
    8. Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural, and Social Life in the Third Reich, Edited by George L. Mosse, Translations by Salvatore Attanasio and others, New York, Schocken Books, 1981, pp. xli, 386. [see n. 54]

    1982

    1. “The Community in the Thought of Nationalism, Fascism and the Radical Right,” in Community as a Social Ideal, Edited by Eugene Kamenka, London, Edward Arnold, 1982, pp. 27-42.
    2. “Introduction,” in “Sexuality in History,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XVII, 2, April 1982, p. 219.
    3. “Friendship and Nationhood: About the Promise and Failure of German Nationalism,” in “Sexuality in History,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XVII, 2, April 1982, pp. 351-367.
    4. “Nationalism and Respectability: Normal and Abnormal Sexuality in the Nineteenth Century,” in “Sexuality in History,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XVII, 2, April 1982, pp. 221-246.
    5. L’uomo e le masse nelle ideologie nazionaliste, Traduzione di Pietro Negri, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1982, pp. III, 311 (Storia e società). [see n. 163]

    1983

    1. “Gedanken zum deutsch-jüdischen Dialog. Vortrag zur Eröffnung der Gastprofessur für jüdische Geschichte,” in Chronik der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich 1982-1983, Munich, 1982-1983, pp. 48-58.
    2. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger), L’Europa del Cinquecento, Traduzione di Maria Teresa Grendi, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1983, pp. 533 (Biblioteca Universale Laterza. 86). [see n. 91]
    3. “Nationalism and Sexuality in Nineteenth Century Europe,” in Society, XX, 5, July-August 1983, pp. 75-84. [see n. 182]
    4. “Nazionalismo e rispettabilità,” in Prometeo, I, 3, settembre 1983, pp. 22-37. [see n. 182]
    5. The Reformation, Paperbook Press, 1983, pp. 64. [see n. 39]

    1984

    1. Sessualità e nazionalismo. Mentalità borghese e rispettabilità, Traduzione di Andrea Zorzi, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1984, pp. VI, 225 (Storia e società).
    2. “Political Style and Political Theory: Totalitarian Democracy Revisited,” in Totalitarian Democracy and After: International Colloquium in Memory of Jacob L. Talmon. Jerusalem, 21-24 June 1982, Jerusalem, Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities/Magnes Press/Hebrew University, 1984, pp. 1167-1176.
    3. “Berlin und die Moderne,” in Berlin um 1900 (Berliner Festwochen 1984. Programm-Magazin), p. 126.
    4. “Bookburning and the Betrayal of German Intellectuals,” in New German Critique, XI, 1, Winter 1984, pp. 143-155.
    5. “Razzismo e omosessualità: intervista a George L. Mosse,” in Sodoma, I, 1, autunno 1984, pp. 93-101. [an interview by Enzo Cucco]
    6. “Race and Sexuality: Bourgeois Society and the Outsider in the Nineteenth Century,” in Onder Mannen, Onder Vrouwen: Studies van homosociale emancipatie, Sammenstelling: Mattias Duyves, Gert Hekma, Paula Koelemij, Amsterdam, SVA, 1984, pp. 79-91.
    7. La nazionalizzazione delle masse. Simbolismo politico e movimenti di massa in Germania, 1815-1933, Traduzione di Livia De Felice, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1984, pp. 313 (Intersezioni, 9). [see n. 131]
    8. Le origini culturali del Terzo Reich, Traduzione di Francesco Saba Sardi, Milan, Il Saggiatore, 1984, pp. 492 (Catalogo, 33). [see n. 40]

    1985

    1. German Jews beyond Judaism, [Based on the author’s Efroymson Lectures at the Hebrew Union College], Bloomington (Ind.), Indiana University Press / Cincinnati (Ohio), Hebrew Union College Press, 1985, pp. ix, 98 (The Modern Jewish Experience).
    2. “Jewish Emancipation: Between ‘Bildung’ and Respectability,” in The Jewish Response to German Culture: From the Enlightenment to the Second World War, [Essays based on papers delivered at the International Conference on German Jews, held at Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, October 8-11, 1983], Edited by Jehuda Reinharz and Walter Schatzberg, Hanover (N.H.), Published for Clark University Press of New England, 1985, pp. 1-16.
    3. Nationalism and Sexuality: Respectability and Abnormal Sexuality in Modern Europe, 1st [American] Edition, New York, Howard Fertig, 1985, pp. viii, 232. [see n. 189]
    4. “Die Bildungsbürger verbrennen ihre eigenen Bücher,” in Das war ein Vorspiel nur…, herausgegeben von Horst Denkler und Eberhard Lämmert, Berlin, Akademie der Künste, 1985, pp. 143-155. [see n. 192]
    5. Nationalismus und Sexualität. Bürgerliche Moral und sexuelle Normen, aus dem Amerikanischen übersetzt von Jörg Trobitius, Munich, Hanser Verlag, 1985, pp. 271. [see n. 189]
    6. Il razzismo in Europa dalle origini all’Olocausto, Traduzione di Livia De Felice, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1985, pp. 287 (Biblioteca Universale Laterza). [see n. 169]
    7. “La Sécularisation de la théologie juive,” trad. Pascale et Terrenoire Gruson, in Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions, XXX, 6, Juillet-Septembre, 1985, pp. 27-41.
    8. Toward the Final Solution: A History of European Racism, Madison (Wis.), University of Wisconsin Press, 1985, pp. xxx, 277. [see no. 147]

    1986

    1. “Response,” in George Mosse on the Occasion of his Retirement. 17.6.1985, Jerusalem, The Koebner Chair of German History/The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1986, pp. xxvi-xxxiii.
    2. “Rushing to the Colors: On the History of Volunteers in War,” in Religion, Ideology and Nationalism in Europe and America: Essays Presented in Honour of Yehoshoua Arieli, Jerusalem, Historical Society of Israel and Zalman Shazar Center for Jewish History, 1986, pp. 173-184.
    3. “Deutsche Juden und der Liberalismus. Ein Rückblick,” in Das deutsche Judentum und der Liberalismus / German Jewry and Liberalism. Dokumentation eines internationalen Seminars der Friedrich-Naumann-Stiftung in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Leo Baeck Institut, London, St. Augustin, Comdok-Verlagsabteilung, 1986, pp. 173-191.
    4. “Two World Wars and the Myth of the War Experience,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XXI, 4, October 1986, pp. 491-513.
    5. La cultura dell’Europa occidentale nell’Ottocento e nel Novecento, Traduzione di Savino D’Amico, Milan, Mondadori, 1986, pp. 500 (Saggi). [see n. 33]

    1987

    1. “Der Erste Weltkrieg und die Brutalisierung der Politik. Betrachtungen über die politische Rechte, den Rassismus und den deutschen Sonderweg,” in Demokratie und Diktatur. Geist und Gestalt politischer Herrschaft in Deutschland und Europa. Festschrift für Karl Dietrich Bracher, herausgegeben von Manfred Funke, Hans-Adolf Jacobsen, Hans-Helmuth Knütter, Hans-Peter Schwarz, Düsseldorf, Droste, 1987, pp. 127-139.
    2. “Zu Hause in der Maaßenstraße,” in 750 Jahre Berlin. Ammerkungen, Erinnerungen, Betrachtungen, herausgegeben von Eberhard Diepgen, Berlin, Nicolai, 1987, pp. 226-230.
    3. “Anatomy of a Stereotype,” in New German Critique, 42, Fall 1987, pp. 163-168.
    4. “Schönheit ohne Sinnlichkeit. Nationalsozialismus und Sexualität,” in “1937. Europa vor dem 2. Weltkrieg,” in Zeitmitschrift, Sonderheft 1987, pp. 96-109.
    5. La cultura dell’Europa occidentale nell’Ottocento e nel Novecento, Traduzione di Savino D’Amico, 2. Milan, Mondadori, 1987, pp. 500 (Saggi). [see n. 33]
    6. Germans and Jews: The Right, the Left, and the Search for a “Third Force” in Pre-Nazi Germany, Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1987, pp. 260. [see n. 94]
    7. “German Jews and Liberalism in Retrospect. Introduction to Year Book XXXII,” in Leo Baeck Institute Year Book XXXII, London, Secker & Warburg, 1987, pp. xiii-xxv. [see n. 207]
    8. Masses and Man: Nationalist and Fascist Perceptions of Reality, Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1987, pp. xii, 362. [see n. 163]
    9. Nationalismus und Sexualität. Bürgerliche Moral und sexuelle Normen, aus dem Amerikanischen übersetzt von Jörg Trobitius, Hamburg, Rowohlt, 1987. [see n. 189]

    1988

    1. “Futurismo e culture politiche in Europa: una prospettiva globale,” in Futurismo, cultura e politica, [Raccoglie I saggi nati dalle relazioni presentate al Convegno organizzato dalla Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli a Venezia, 15-16 maggio 1986], A cura di Renzo De Felice, Turin, Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli, 1988, pp. 13-29.
    2. “Die lückenlose Geschichte. Ernst Noltes Antwort auf seine Kritiker,” in Ein Büchertagebuch. Buchbesprechungen aus der Frankfurter Allgemeinen Zeitung, Frankfurt, F.A.Z., 1988, pp. 425-427.
    3. “Homosexualité et fascisme français,” in Société, 17 Mars 1988, pp. 14-16.
    4. “The End Is Not Yet: A Personal Memoir of the German-Jewish Legacy in America,” in American Jewish Archives, XL, 2, November 1988, pp. 177-201.
    5. “Wagner, the Ring and History,” in Skript, X, 4, Winter 1988, pp. 287-288.
    6. The Culture of Western Europe: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, 3rd revised and enlarged edition, Boulder (Col.), Westview Press, 1988, pp. 430. [see n. 33]
    7. Il dialogo ebraico-tedesco: da Goethe a Hitler, Traduzione di Daniel Vogelmann, Firenze, Giuntina, 1988, pp. 124 (Collana Schulim Vogelmann, 20). [see n. 197]
    8. Nationalism and Sexuality: Middle Class Morality and Sexual Norms in Modern Europe, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1988, pp. x, 232. [see n. 199]
    9. La nazionalizzazione delle masse. Simbolismo politico e movimenti di massa in Germania (1815-1933), Traduzione di Livia De Felice, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1988, pp. 312 (Intersezioni, 9). [see n. 131]228. L’uomo e le masse nelle ideologie nazionaliste, Traduzione di Pietro Negri, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1988, pp. 309 (Biblioteca Universale Laterza. 248). [see n. 163]

    1989

    1. “L’autorappresentazione nazionale negli anni Trenta negli Stati Uniti e in Europa,” in L’estetica della politica. Europa e America negli anni Trenta, a cura di Maurizio Vaudagna, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1989, pp. 3-23.
    2. “National Anthems: The Nation Militant,” in From Ode to Anthem. Problems of Lyric Poetry, Edited by Reinhold Grimm and Jost Hermand, Madison (Wis.), Published for Monatshefte [by] The University of Wisconsin Press, 1989, pp. 86-100.
    3. “Fascism and the French Revolution,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XXIV, 1, January 1989, pp. 5-26.
    4. “Il canto della patria,” in Prometeo, VIII, 29, marzo 1990, pp. 14-21. [see n. 230]
    5. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger and Gerard Q. Bowler), Europe in the Sixteenth Century, 2nd revised and enlarged edition, London/New York, Longman, 1989, pp. 539. [see n. 75]
    6. Toward the Final Solution: A History of European Racism, Tel Aviv, Everyman Publishers, 1989. [see n. 147]

    1990

    1. Fallen Soldiers: Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars, New York, Oxford University Press, 1990, pp. vi, 264.
    2. “Das deutsch-jüdische Bildungsbürgertum im 19. Jahrhundert,” in Bildungsbürgertum im 19. Jahrhundert, herausgegeben von Werner Conze und Jürgen Kocka, Teil 2, Bildungsgüter und Bildungswissen, herausgegeben von Reinhart Koselleck, Stuttgart, Klett-Cotta, 1990, pp. 168-180.
    3. “New Left Intellectuals/New Left Politics,” in History and the New Left. Madison, Wisconsin, 1950-1970, Edited by Paul Buhle, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1990, pp. 233-238.
    4. “Fascism and the French Revolution,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XXIV, 1, January 1990, pp. 5-26.
    5. “Gershom Scholem as a German Jew,” in Modern Judaism, X, 2, May 1990, pp. 117-132.
    6. “Medicine and Murder,” in Studies in Contemporary Jewry, VI, 1990, pp. 315-320.
    7. “Racism,” in Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, New York, 1990, pp. 1206-1217.
    8. “The Political Culture of Italian Futurism: A General Perspective,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XXV, 2-3, April-July 1990, pp. 253-268.
    9. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger and Gerard Q. Bowler), L’Europa del Cinquecento, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1990, pp. VIII, 575. [see n. 75]
    10. Le guerre mondiali. Dalla tragedia al mito dei caduti, Traduzione di Giovanni Ferrara, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1990, pp. VIII, 284 (Storia e società). [see n. 235]
    11. Rassismus. Ein Krankheitssymptom in der europäischen Geschichte des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, Fischer Taschenbuch, 1990. [see n. 154]

    1991

    1. “Ich bleibe Emigrant.” Gespräche mit George L. Mosse, herausgegeben von Irene Runge und Uwe Stelbrink, Berlin, Dietz, 1991, pp. 121.
    2. “Beauty without Sensuality: The Exhibition Entartete Kunst,” in “Degenerate Art”: The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany, Edited by Stephanie Barron, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1991, pp. 25-31.
    3. “Über Kriegserinnerungen und Kriegsbegeisterung,” in Kriegsbegeisterung und mentale Kriegsvorbereitung. Interdisziplinäre Studien, herausgegeben von Marcel van der Linden und Gottfried Mergner unter Mitarbeit von Herman de Langen, Berlin, Duncker & Humblot, 1991, pp. 27-36.
    4. “’Fin de siècle’: Challenge and Response,” in Bijdragen en medelingen betreffende de geschiedenes der Nederlanden, CVI, 4, 1991, pp. 573-580.
    5. “Rescuing Marxism,” in Salmagundi, Fall 1990 – Winter 1991, pp. 510-514.
    6. “The United States: The Dominance of Cultural History,” in La Grande Guerre. Pays, Histoire, Mémoire. Bulletin de recherche, 3, février 1991, pp. 8-9.
    7. “George L. Mosse over de Duitslanden en de Duitsers,” in Spiegel Historiael, XXVI, 4, April 1991, pp. 187-192. [interview by Martijn van Leishout]
    8. The Nationalization of the Masses: Political Symbolism and Mass Movements in Germany from the Napoleonic Wars through the Third Reich, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1991, pp. xiv, 252 (Cornell paperbacks). [see n. 131]
    9. Le origini culturali del Terzo Reich, Traduzione di Francesco Saba Sardi, 3. Edizione, Milan, Il Saggiatore, 1991, pp. 492. [see n. 40]
    10. Die völkische Revolution. Über die geistigen Wurzeln des Nationalsozialismus, Frankfurt/M., Anton Hain Verlag, 1991, pp. VII, 368. [see n. 40]
    11. Ebrei in Germania fra assimilazione e antisemitismo, Traduzione di Paola e Cristina Candela, Firenze, Giuntina, 1991, pp. 273 (Collana Schulim Vogelmann, 26). [see n. 94]

    1992

    1. “The Jews and the Civil Religion of Nationalism,” in The Impact of Western Nationalisms… [see n. 254], pp. 319-330.
    2. “Gli ebrei e il nazionalismo,” in Nuova Antologia, 2181, gennaio-marzo 1992, pp. 63-73.
    3. “Max Nordau, Liberalism and the New Jew,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XXVII, 4, October 1992, pp. 565-581.
    4. The Impact of Western Nationalisms: Essays Dedicated to Walter Z. Laqueur on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday, Edited by Jehuda Reinharz and George L. Mosse, London/Newbury Park (Calif.), Sage Publications, 1992, pp. viii, 336.
    5. “Schönheit ohne Sinnlichkeit. Die Ausstellung ‘Entartete Kunst’,” in “Entartete Kunst.” Das Schicksal der Avantgarde im Nazi-Deutschland, herausgegeben von Stephanie Barron, Munich, Hirmer, 1992, pp. 25-32. [see n. 247]
    6. “Gli ebrei e la religione civica del nazionalismo,” in Stato nazionale ed emanicipazione ebraica, A cura di Francesca Sofia e Mario Toscano, Rome, Bonacci, 1992, pp. 143-154. [see n. 257]
    7. Jüdische Intellektuelle in Deutschland. Zwischen Religion und Nationalismus, mit einer Einleitung von Alida Assmann, aus dem Englischen von Christine Spelsberg, Frankfurt/Main, Campus Verlag, 1992, pp. 144 (Edition Pandora, 1). [see n. 197]
    8. Il razzismo in Europa. Dalle origini all’Olocausto, Traduzione di Livia De Felice, Milan, Mondadori, 1992, pp. XII, 288 (Oscar Saggi, 304). [see n. 147]

    1993

    1. Confronting the Nation: Jewish and Western Nationalism, Hanover (N.H.) and London, Published [for] Brandeis University Press by University Press of New England, 1993, pp. 220 (The Tauber Institute for the Study of European Jewry Series; 16).
    2. “Deutscher Patriotismus und jüdischer Nationalismus,” in Deutschlands Weg in die Moderne. Politik, Gesellschaft und Kultur im 19. Jahrhundert. In memoriam Thomas Nipperdey, herausgegeben von Wolfgang Hardtwig und Harm-Hinrich Brandt, Munich, C. H. Beck, 1993, pp. 161-170.
    3. “Virilità e decadentismo,” in Sodoma, VI, 5, primavera 1993, pp. 91-101.
    4. “Il dibattito sul neo-nazismo,” in Nuova Antologia, 2186, Aprile-Giugno 1993, pp. 16-19.
    5. Gefallen für das Vaterland. Nationales Heldentum und namenloses Sterben, Stuttgart, Klett-Cotta, 1993, pp. 311. [see n. 235]
    6. Intervista sul nazismo, A cura di Michael A. Ledeen, Traduzione di Giovanni Ferrara, Milan, Mondadori, 1993, pp. 156 (Oscar Bestsellers saggi, 66). [see n. 142]
    7. “Max Nordau and His ‘Degeneration’, Introduction to Max Nordau,” in Degeneration, Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1993, pp. Viii-xxxiii. [see n. 78]
    8. Der nationalsozialistische Alltag, Frankfurt/Main, Anton Hain Verlag, 1993. [see n. 54]

    1994

    1. “Masculinity and the Decadence,” in Sexual Knowledge, Sexual Science, Edited by Roy Porter and Mikulás Teich, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1994, pp. 251-266.
    2. “Souvenir de la guerre et place du monumentalisme dans l’identité culturelle du National-Socialisme,” in Guerre et Cultures 1914-1918, Ed. Jean-Jacques Becker et al., Paris, Armand Colin, 1994, pp. 278-286.
    3. “The Knights of the Sky,” in War: A Cruel Necessity?, Edited by R. A. Hinde, London, I.B. Tauris & Co., 1994, pp. 132-142.276. “La guerre et l’identité culturelle du National-Socialisme,” in Vingtième Siècle, 41, Janvier-Mars 1994, pp. 51-59.
    4. “National Socialism, Nudity and the Male Body,” in CultureFront, III, 1, Winter-Spring 1994, pp. 89-92.
    5. Le origini culturali del Terzo Reich, Traduzione di Francesco Saba Sardi, Milan, Il Saggiatore, 1994, pp. 492. [see n. 40]
    6. The Nationalization of the Masses: Political Symbolism and Mass Movements in Germany, from the Napoleonic Wars through the Third Reich, Tokyo, Takunisato, 1994. [see n. 131]
    7. Fallen Soldiers: Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars, Tel Aviv, Am Oved, 1994. [see n. 235]

    1995

    1. “Estetica fascista e societè: considerazioni,” in Il Regime fascista, Ed. A. del Boca, M. Legmani, M. G. Rossi, Rome/Bari, Laterza, 1995, p. 1.
    2. “Männlichkeit und der Grosse Weltkrieg,” in So ist der Mensch. 80 Jahre Erster Weltkrieg, Vienna, Eigenverlag der Museen der Stadt Wien, 1995, pp. 57-69.
    3. “1915-18: La Madre di tutti gli stermini,” in Panorama, 25 May 1995, vol. XXVII, pp. 127-134.
    4. “Racism and Nationalism,” in Nations and Nationalism, I, 2, 1995, pp. 21-31.
    5. Can Nationalism Be Saved? About Zionism Rightful and Unjust Nationalism, The Weizman Lecture in the Humanities, Weizman Institute, Jerusalem, Nov. 5, 1995, pp. 19.

    1996

    1. The Image of Man: The Creation of Modern Masculinity, New York, Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 232.
    2. Il fascismo: verso una teoria generale, Rome, Laterza, 1996, pp. 86.
      288. “Manliness and the Great War,” in Genocide, War and Human Survival, ed. Charles B. Strozier and Michael Flynn, Lanham, Md., Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 1996, pp. 165-175.
    3. “Fascist Aesthetics and Society, Some Considerations,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XXXI, 2, April 1996, pp. 245-252.
    4. “Central European Intellectuals in Palestine,” in Judaism, XLV, 2, Spring 1996, pp. 131-142.
    5. “Il declino della morale,” in Prometeo, XIV, 53, March 1996, pp. 6-13.
    6. “Max Nordau, le Libéralisme et le Nouveau Juif,” in Max Nordau, Ed. Delphine Bechtel, Dominque Bourel, Jacques le Rider, Paris, Les Editions du Cerf, 1996, pp. 11-29.
    7. “Les deux Guerres de George Mosse,” in L’Histoire, 199, May 1996, pp. 13-14. [interview by Bruno Cabanes]
    8. German Jews beyond Judaism, Tokyo, Kashana, 1996. [see n. 197]
    9. “Zu Hause in der Maaßenstraße,” in Jüdische Korrespondenz, V, 7-8, July/August 1996, p. 1. [see n. 211]
    10. “Ist der Nationalismus noch zu retten? Über gerechtfertigten und ungerechtfertigten Nationalismus,” in Responsibility and Commitment, Festschrift für Jost Hermand, Ed. Klaus Berghahn et al., Frankfurt am Main, Peter Lang, 1996. [see n. 285]

    1997

    1. “Politisches Erwachen, Berlin, das Exil und die antifaschistische Bewegung,” in Die Erfahrung des Exils, herausgegeben von Wolfgang Benz und Marion Neiss, Berlin, Metropol Verlag, 1997, pp. 67-82.
    2. “The Universal Meaning of the Concept of Bildung,” in Zmanin, published by the School of History at Tel Aviv University, XVI, 61, Winter 1997-98, pp. 6-10.
    3. “Zionism at 100: The God that Did Not Fail,” (Symposium) in The New Republic, CCXVII, 10-11, September 8 and 15, 1997, pp. 19-20.
    4. The Culture of Western Europe: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, with a new preface, Barcelona, Ariel Historia, 1997 (XIX Century only). [see n. 33]
    5. Das Bild des mannes, Zur Konstruktion der modernen männlichkeit, Frankfurt, Fisher Verlag, 1997, pp. 284. [see n. 286]
    6. L’immagine dell’uomo, lo stereotipo maschile nell’epoca moderna, Turin, Einaudi, 1997. [see n. 286]
    7. The Image of Man, The Creation of Modern Masculinity, Korea, Moonye Publishing, 1997. [see n. 286]
    8. La imagen del hombre, La creación de la mascalinidad moderna, Barcelona, Talasa Editiones, 1997. [see n. 286]
    9. L’Image del’homme, L’invention de la virilité moderne, Paris, Abbeville Press, 1997. [see n. 286]
    10. “Can Nationalism Be Saved? About Zionism Rightful and Unjust Nationalism,” in Israel Studies, II, 1, Spring 1997, pp. 156-173. [see n. 285]

    1998

    1. “Razzismo e nazionalismo in Europa,” in Integrazione e identità, l’esperienza ebraica in Germania e Italia dall’illuminismo al fascismo, Ed. Mario Toscano, Milan, Franco Agnelli, 1998, pp. 236-243.
    2. “De Felice e il Revisionismo Storico,” in Nuova Antologia, CXIII, April-June, 1998, pp. 177-186.
    3. “Ein Besuch in Salem nach langer Zeit,” in Salem College–Salem 1998, pp. 35-36.
    4. The Crisis of German Ideology: The Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich, New York, Howard Fertig, 1998. [see n. 40]
    5. The Crisis of German Ideology: The Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich, Tokyo, Kasiva Shobo, 1998. [see n. 40]
    6. “Le origini occulte del nazionalsocialismo,” in I viaggi di erodoto, XII, 35, septembre-novembre, 1998, pp. 24-39. [see n. 34]

    1999

    1. The Fascist Revolution, Toward a General Theory of Fascism, New York, Howard Fertig, 1999.
    2. “America 1939-42,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XXXIV, 3, July 1999, pp. 443-456.
    3. “Dankesworte,” in Grußworte und Vorträge anläßlich der Verleihung der Ehrendoktorwürde an George L. Mosse am 6. November 1998. Herausgegeben vom Rektor der Universität-Gesamthochschule Siegen, pp. 35-37. Siegen: presse- und Informationsstelle.
    4. Fallen Soldiers: Shaping the Memory of the World Wars, Paris, Hachette, 1999. [see n. 235]

    2000

    1. Confronting History: The Memoirs of George L. Mosse, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 2000.
    2. “Shell-shock as a Social Disease,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XXXV, 1, January 2000, pp. 101-108.
    3. Europe in the Sixteenth Century, 2nd revised and expanded edition, London/New York, Longman, 2000. [see n. 75] (In collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger and Gerard Q. Bowler)
    4. De la Grande Guerre au totalitarisme, la brutalisation des sociétés européenes, Paris, Hachette Littératures, 2000, pp. 291. [see n. 235]

     

  • 1996.10.18 - George Mosse - Why Gay History?
    Leo Baeck Institute, AR 25137 / MF 671, Box 46, Folder 16.
    Leo Baeck Institute, AR 25137 / MF 671, Box 46, Folder 16.

    Why Gay History?
    A talk given by Prof. George L. Mosse
    Madison, Wisconsin-October 18, 1996

    [Mary Alice Mowry] The GLB assoc- alumnis, which we call ourselves, the alums, were established in 1992, and we officially received recognition from Wisconsin Alumni Association in 1994. We are still the only Big 10 University who, their Gay/Lesbian Alumni group has received official sanction within the alumnis, so it’s a pretty proud thing for us to be No. 1. And, as many of you know, we do our July reunion brunch, and we have started in the spring doing a program for gay, lesbian, bisexual graduates. And three years ago, when we thought about homecoming and all of the, all of the hordes of red-and-white gowned folks around, and we knew that there would be gay/lesbian folks who were coming back to town, and we decided we’d like to do something. And so the lectures have come out of we wanting to do something. And, tonight, we’re very distinguished to have Professor [George L.] Mosse (1918-1999) with us. Our first lecture was John D’Emilio (b. 1948), and last year we had Lisa Duggan (b. 1954), and tonight we have Professor Mosse. For those of you who are soon-to-be alums, or are alums and you have not signed up to be a part of the Alumni Association, we would love to have you. And there’s materials in the back as you came in that you can pick up, and we hope you enjoy the lecture. And I’m gonna turn it over to Dick Wagner.

    [Dick Wagner] After Mary Alice’s remark, I guess I’m the hordes in the red and white, for the evening at least [laughter]. One of the things that gay people have been able to do at various times is pass, and, so, I have been this afternoon with all of the other members of the National Alumni Association. And one of the interesting things that I heard there was that the diversity efforts that the National Wisconsin Alumni Association has undertaken has increased their contacts with some 15 % of the alums who previously they didn’t have much contact with, and that they are making a very serious effort to get beyond boosterism, which has traditionally been the image of hordes of red and white. And so, if they’re willing to get beyond boosterism, I’m willing to get my red-and-white sweatshirt out. So, I figure we’ll meet them somewhere in between. Ah, but, that’s not really what I’m here to do. I’m here – really a special honor – to introduce George Mosse, and George received a special recognition at our summer brunch, and he spoke there briefly. And folks commented that they would like to have George have a chance to say more, because of the interesting things that he had to say and which he has been researching and writing about recently. And we asked him and he very graciously said yes.

    He is indeed a noted author and has published extensively, including Toward the Final Solution: A History of European Racism, The Crisis of German Ideology, Nationalism and Sexuality, and lately he has sort of been, I guess, retired or a professor emeritus, and – but he’s still busy writing. And looking at the notes in his recent book, I noticed articles, “National Socialism, Nudity, and the Male Body,” “Beauty without Sensuality,” so it’s clear that he’s still very productive as a scholar. When I was here as a graduate student at the university, it was sort of the fabled George Mosse who was teaching on this campus, and he indeed was one of the stars of the Madison faculty. He has continued that tradition, and he is now a professor emeritus at the University of Wisconsin, the Bascom-Weinstein Professor; he’s also professor of history emeritus at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. In 1996, the book that he published is The Image of Man, and its subtitle: The Creation of Modern Masculinity, and it begins with one of those notes about how people would talk about “the need to be a man.” And I can remember that phrase thrown at me as I was struggling myself with trying to figure out who I was, and how I was going to decide to lead my life. And so, the works that George has published and which he has taught have tried to, I think, provide the ways that we can structure the reality that we are living. And, he concludes this work with a note that “all those who want to change society, as well as those who want to escape their marginalization, have to take the stereotype of modern masculinity into account.” And so, we’re very pleased that George is with us tonight and is going to talk about, “Why gay history?” And I’m very honored to have this introduction for George Mosse. George.

    [GLM] I’m kind of sorry that I have to stand up here, so far away. As long as you don’t believe everything I say just because I’m up here, it will be alright. Now, Dick said that I should talk, “Why Gay History?” But I have changed it a little, because this afternoon I want to be much more concrete than that. But to illustrate completely why gay history is important for us, not just that we know our past, but also that we know our present, and perhaps a little of our future as well. The concrete and relevant example I’m going to use today will be the greatest persecution of homosexuals in modern times, namely under the National Socialists in Germany.

    I am here not concerned, as people usually are, how many died, how many were in concentration camps and all of that, but rather with the context in which this persecution took place. We all know that it happened, we all know about the camps, we all know that about 50,000 gays perished. But that is really not my point. My point is the context, which seems to me all-important.  And though after 1933 gays were actively persecuted and condemned to death unless they could prove that they had mended their ways, the Nazi here, and this is really one of my chief points, the Nazi here invented nothing new, but merely took the hopes and fears of society and brought them, as it were, to a boiling point. The very success of National Socialism was that it always worked within familiar contexts, present traditions, and used already existing prejudice.

    When we look at gay persecution, then, the bottom line is this: what really counts is that it is set in a continuity, that it isn’t something that suddenly welled up and happened, but it was set in a certain continuity, and that continuity seems to me all-important to discuss.

    At the time, and until relatively recently, the Nazis were regarded as opponents of bourgeois society, as opponents of middle-class society. Their leader, Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), supposedly a house painter – they were ruffians without any education, I remember very well that my father, who was what you might call a newspaper lord in Germany, believed until 1933 that Hitler belonged on the comic pages of our newspapers and not in the main part of it. And indeed, and indeed in their speeches and writings, the Nazis did attack constantly the fat, rich, and cowardly bourgeoisie. In Hitler’s speeches bourgeoisie meant indecision, wimpiness, unsoldierly behavior. But notice, nothing whatsoever in these tirades touched bourgeois respectability, an image that the Nazis themselves were only too keen to project. Respectability, meaning good manners, behavior, normative sexuality, and gender division above all, was the mirror through which society saw itself, and of course still largely sees itself today. All this is thoroughly documented through what the Nazis did immediately, they came to power. Immediately they came to power, one of their very first actions was to ban all pornography, yes, to close all dance-halls, if you like, and to get rid of nudism in all its forms.

    But what has that to do with our fate? If one looks at all those whom the Nazis persecuted, an important pattern emerges on the background of what I have just said – the quest for respectability in a respectable society. Let us take as an example, for example, a law, which the Nazis proposed in 1943, and which they called the “Law for the treatment of those unable to sustain a community.” Now, that was the basic accusation: these people could not sustain a community. But who were these people? Those who refuse to work, vagrants, the permanently dissatisfied, beggars, the mentally impaired, the crippled, and the homosexuals. You must add to those the Jews and the Gypsies. Now, what do all of these have actually in common, all of these I just read out?

    They represent the exact opposite of the ideal society, or the ideals which society is supposed to stand for: the exact opposite of the work ethic, settledness, moderation, control over one’s passions, especially control over one’s sexuality. Moreover, all these virtues are not merely inward properties; most important, these virtues were thought to leave their mark on the body and face. I know many of you will think immediately, quite rightly, of Oscar Wilde (1854-1900), The Picture of Dorian Gray. That’s quite correct. It was generally considered that virtue and vice are written on your face and on your body as well. It was assumed, then, that one could at a glance distinguish between the virtues, virtuous, and those who had no virtue; that, as it were, their appearance gave them away. Now for us, this is of very special importance. The Nazis regarded themselves as a “state of males,” a society based on male camaraderie, and the male body became an important symbol of the regime. When you went, for example, into Hitler’s Reichs Chancellery, to see the chancellor, the first thing you would see were two statues of nude youths – the nude male body as symbol, from the first.

    Now what sort of a male body, is the question. Now, ever since the nineteenth century, an ideal of male beauty had grown up, an ideal of male beauty which was indeed thought to reflect the hopes and wishes of society. It was based on the young Greek males whom at the beginning of the century, an art historian called [Johann Joachim] Winckelmann (1717-1768), a homosexual by the way, an art historian called Winckelmann had rediscovered, and his History of Ancient Art went like a wildfire through Europe and really made, created what we call the ideal male type until today. What is it? A harmonious body; a body that documents moderation and yet power, or as Winckelmann said, quiet strength. He thought in these nude Greek youths the plays of the muscles were the dynamic and their whole figure was the harmony. Therefore, in this way, visually, visually, you could solve one of the main problems of bourgeois society, of reconciling order and dynamic. These Greek youths reconciled, in their very male bodies, order and dynamic. They projected this, in their quiet strength, in their moderation, in their harmony. And that was important, for we are now in a time where society seemed to be on the brink of chaos. Starting with the age of Winckelmann and the Industrial Revolution, society seemed on the brink of chaos, and here was an example of quiet, of restraint, of moderation, and yet, if you like, of power. And so you get, very briefly, an ideal male type, which was important, for as the saying was in the nineteenth century, the male body represents all of society; women’s bodies represent only part of societies.

    Now once I have said that, why is that important? It is important because the outsider, all those that I have mentioned in these Nazi laws, are therefore the exact opposite. Disproportionate in appearance, their passions out of control, no moderation, everything is in motion. And now comes something which really got me on to this topic, by the way: all outsiders look alike. If you look at the caricatures of gays, of Jews, of vagrants, yes, of the insane – they all look exactly alike, because they are the exact opposite of the male stereotype. They are puny, they have these bad bodies, they don’t walk, they waddle, yes, all of that. They have no necks, usually [laughter], yes? they are wimpish – you know all of this. But you’ve never asked yourselves why they should look that way. And why they should look that way, and this is very effective, is that they’re the exact opposite of the ideal type. And in this way, society gets its self-confidence. For our society has always had enemies. There wasn’t a time when our society didn’t have enemies, and those enemies boost society’s self-confidence, and especially now, because with the nineteenth century we’re in a visual age. People don’t read anymore, you should know that, they see. Long before television that was true. They don’t read anymore, they see, it’s a visual age, and therefore these kind of images become all-important.

    Now, though gays were said, of course, not to sustain a community, in reality, and here again in the opposite, they did sustain a community, only it was the counter-community. It was a community based on conspiracy. It was a community based on cheating and lying. All the opposite of the manly virtues. It was a state within a state. Do you hear echoes, am I sounding like Senator [Jesse] Helms (1921-2008), or Mr. [Bob] Dornan (b. 1933) [laughter], this is not an accident. This is not an accident. These people just repeat longstanding ideas, nothing new whatsoever here. Gays were a menace, therefore; they were a menace for many reasons. They were a menace documented by their looks. They were a menace because they were thought to be ill. And the metaphor of illness and the gays is very important in an age when illness and health became ever more important. Not quite as obsessive as today, but anyway, ever more important. And moreover, gayness, like being a Jew, was an infectious disease, a very important accusation in the age of syphilis. Syphilis was Hitler’s great obsession, and not only Hitler’s great obsession, but this idea of an infectious disease was very important.

    Now gay history confronts all of this. Already in the nineteenth century, homosexuality was thought to be a neurotic illness. And by the way, Jews also were supposed to be especially subject to insanity. Here immoderation, excitement, bodily contortion, all of this, normalcy, all of this characterized them. Now what was the reaction of normative society? Normative society marginalized these people, it marginalized them, it sought to exclude them, but it did not seek to exterminate them. Whatever you can say about normative society, you excluded them, you ghettoized them, but you did not exterminate them.

    So what made the difference between exclusion and marginalization and extermination, it’s a big difference, no? It’s racism which makes the difference. And in this regard, racism also affected gays. Not just the Jews, of course, but gays as well. Gays obviously play a different role than Jews or Gypsies here. Jews or Gypsies are clearly an inferior race and must be exterminated root and branch. But with gays it was more difficult. Most gays were, after all, Aryans. So you could not take this road. So you took another road, a road hallowed by a long medical tradition, which had believed ever since [the] mid-nineteenth century, there were two sorts of homosexuality, homosexuals: those who had inherited homosexuality and those who had been seduced in their youth and could be cured, what in German is called Schein-homosexuals, who were seduced in their youth and could be cured. Now it was clear that those who could not be cured, who had inherited homosexuality, were like an inferior race, because they menaced the race, they menaced the race by destroying it from within. And those who had been seduced in their youth, they could be cured, and so, as some of you know, no doubt, the Nazis invented ways that you could tell. If a gay was put into a concentration camp, one of the first things that was done, he was taken to the local whorehouse and put in bed with a whore, and see if he functioned properly. If he functioned properly, he was released. If he did not, of course, then he stayed in the camp and probably died. So that you have this distinction, which got around this very real problem that most, after all, homosexuals were of the “proper race,” as it were.

    It is typical here that gays in occupied countries like Holland or France were never really persecuted at all, for it was quite right and proper that those countries were undermined from within by the gays. And so you have in France the spectacle that known and famous gays, like the playwright [Jean] Cocteau (1889-1963), or the minister of education of the Vichy government, [Abel] Bonnard (1883-1968), were honored by the Nazis. Not persecuted, but honored by the Nazis. So you have that spectacle, and in Holland, something very similar, by the way, happened.

    Now all of this may seem straightforward. Here are the gays being persecuted. Here are the gays coming to camps, here are the gays allowed to pass. But there’s one other factor which is less straightforward, and perhaps more distressing. And that has been usually a taboo in research up to now: the certain attraction which National Socialism had for many prominent gays. The self-conscious male state, male bonding, the idea of male beauty put up in front, as it were – all this made its mark here as well. The prospectus, which the Berlin gays just put out for their new monument to the victims of National Socialism, says in it that the homosexuals could be perpetrators as well as victims. That, I think, is exaggerating the case, but it is true, probably, it is true nevertheless that there were groups and even the first homosexual journal ever published in Germany, called Der Eigene, starting in 1903 [actually began in 1896], was racist, antisemitic, and put forward the ideal male stereotype. So there was the attraction, there was the attraction here, that must be said as well. Nevertheless, the Nazis shut down this periodical at once in 1933 and didn’t take at all into account that its founder [Adolf Brand (1874-1945)] was a racist and a Nazi, in fact. It made no difference in this case.

    Now we must say, however, here at once that throughout the modern age the outsider always has wanted to be an insider. That is nothing new. You’ve heard of the nose job. You’ve heard of hair straighteners for Afro-Americans, and all of that, yes? It’s nothing new, of course, at all. But here again, the Nazis brought out the extremes: some gays assimilating and indeed supporting an overtly hostile regime which, however, wanted to erase not all homosexuals, just some of them.

    It is all more distressing, and I must say this, because it’s very distressing to me what I’m saying now, what I’m going to say now, that even anti-Nazis and anti-fascists in the 1930s made use of the existence of homosexuals in a manner which differed not at all from the way that the Nazis made use of them. The Nazi leadership was constantly pictured as a coterie of homosexuals, a perception, of course, which was encouraged by the Nazis as a male state, as I have said. Anti-fascist literature made most of this accusation, and indeed, a homosexual, Klaus Mann (1906-1949), the novelist, the son of the writer Thomas Mann (1875-1955), put it very well. He said – and he was leading in the anti-fascist movement – he said, “the homosexuals are the Jews of the anti-fascists.” I think that’s quite a true and a very shrewd insight. The communists lent very strong support here, from the beginning. Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956), the playwright, constructed a sexual relation between Hitler and [Ernst] Röhm (1887-1934), his admitted homosexual chief of staff, but above all, what went throughout the left literature is a saying of Maxim Gorky (1868-1936), much revered writer and symbol in the Soviet Union, who said, “if you exterminate the homosexuals, fascism will vanish.”

    Now, in all of this, such propaganda, such propaganda was a means to make out the Nazis as not-respectable people, obviously. But even that – that even homosexuals joined can show you to what extent in these pre-war years the focus was on defeating National Socialism. That was, after all, the main focus, you mustn’t forget that. Defeating National Socialism at all costs, and here the means justified the ends. But in addition, it demonstrates how widespread and deep gay prejudice was, so that one almost took it for granted. I must tell you, I myself was active in the anti-fascist movement at the time, and looking back at it from today, I didn’t give it a thought that we used these accusations constantly against the National Socialists, yes? That was almost a staple, which we took totally for granted. That gives you something of the depth of all of this, the depth of, if you like, this kind, which is not merely unthinking, but this kind of social attitude.

    The history of gays under Nazi persecution, then, is not a simple tale of numbers and camps, but has much deeper roots. To be sure, most gays, I’m pretty convinced, escaped: they faked a cure which could be done even in the camps, as I said. Moreover, and that’s often forgotten, gays were freed by the judicial system, even under the Nazis, if there was enough, not enough evidence. Because people forget that the German judicial system functioned more or less normally even under the Nazis themselves. Though they were often rearrested as they left the courthouse. They were often rearrested as well.

    But above all, gays of course disguised their real nature, which they could do much better than the Jews. Why? Because they had practice in doing that, while for the Jews this was by and large completely a new and unprecedented situation, of which very few took advantage. At every turn, therefore, gays confronted normative society, which they could join if properly disguised, and at the same time, they were victims of society’s ideals.

    Now here I must say what I said at the beginning: the Nazi persecution basically continued the traditional existing policy of marginalization, of seeing homosexuality as the enemy of normative society. Perhaps, as I also said, our society needs an enemy for its own self-affirmation, and finds it in those who are perceived to be different. But in addition, the gays menaced one of the chief pillars of society: the whole concept of respectability, which in the last resort is built on gender divisions. And anything which menaced gender divisions also menaced, as it were, society – was also thought to menace society as a whole. Racism transformed discrimination into a struggle of life and death, that’s what racism did; it brutalized all it touched through its concept of permanent war. Gays became foils in that war, those believed to be true homosexuals. Racism always thought in stereotypes and not in terms of individuals, and here it wanted to erase, as they said at one point, not homosexuals, but homosexuality. You could never say that about Jews. You could never say, “I want to erase Judaism but not Jews.” That would have been quite a different kind of matter. But Jews were the inferior race, the lowest on the totem pole, and you could not say that, but you could say it here. The metaphor of disease was always uppermost, one which was familiar and readily understood, and has again come to the surface with AIDS, as you well know, so many people in Congress have said, you know, AIDS is a, is an infectious disease, and then this whole, what I’ve talked about, comes again to the surface. It’s nothing new, it’s nothing new at all, it comes again to the surface.

    But, above all, I suppose, when all is said and done, homosexuality became a metaphor, a lightning rod, for the fears of modernity, always present in the perception of the gay stereotype, in the pictures, in people’s minds. After all, the frightening speed of time, the uncertainty, the rapid change as opposed to the security of tradition, led people to seek shelter in the normative, in the familiar, in the solid. And both the Nazis – and both Nazis and racism, nationalism if you like and racism worked with what was most familiar: the human stereotype. The human stereotype became typical for virtue and vice, for being a good citizen. What I’ve talked about, really, is the origins not only of the male stereotype, but within it the origins of the all-American boy, and the clean-cut shaven Englishman, and they all go back to that homosexual Winckelmann, which they don’t know, of course [laughter].

    Now, why then Gay history?

    So that we can learn perhaps, even from the extreme experience which I have talked about, that basic to the desire for extermination, in this case as in others, are traditional concepts of sickness and health, virtues and vice. Racism always makes prejudice deadly, but it could not have worked without exploiting already existing trends and fears of respectable society. These ideas in modern times were always thought to be under siege, though in reality, of course, they are familiar and generally accepted as the cement of society.

    Now I think myself this is what gays still basically face today, as they did then – both as temptation and as the foe – even though the frontiers of the permissible have been extended, have been extended to an unimaginable extent, which you couldn’t have possibly imagined much earlier. The question, it seems to me, is not, are we going to be totally emancipated. That is, to me, not the question. The question is, as long as we have the structure of society we have, as long as respectability holds, and holds well, and most of us can’t even think what comes after respectability, we can’t even think what comes after respectability. As long as that holds, the question is, how far can it bend, how permissive can it be, where are the borders when it retrenches again? You can say about today, for example, fine, in the sixties everything was open, there was general gender bending. When you went down Main Street – State Street here, you couldn’t tell from the back, is it a boy or a girl, yes? Anything. You couldn’t. Yes? But then, we retrench again. Look at the boys in this audience here. Yes? They look like the fifties [laughter]. No gender bending here, as far as I can see, or as I walk down the campus. So we have again – respectability has its due, if you like, you have again the retrenchment. When I said that some years ago, to a general first gay and lesbian international meeting at Amsterdam, I got attacked terribly, because of course what I say is rather pessimistic. I’m saying I don’t see any complete emancipation without a complete change in social structure, I do not see that, and in the cement which holds society, as it were, together. So, it seems to me, the peripheries are in question.

    Now, to be sure, one must fight the day-to-day battles, but the study of gay history can get us to confront the underlying factors which drive the persecution and discrimination itself. They are not always on the surface or found in the heat of the moment, but they have to do with society’s self-image and society’s defensive posture. How much room they will allow is of course difficult to say. But I remind you that all that which is traditional and familiar, all that which we are used to and in whose peripheries we move, under certain circumstances can be deadly to any minority, as they have been in the past, as I’ve tried to explain to you this afternoon. It is always latent, latent within them, always latent within them in my opinion, and the question is again the periphery within which all this can ask, work.

    The Nazis of course had a hierarchy of evil, in which the Jews were the driving force. But gays, as “incurable,” were close to the top. Both were connected for the Nazis, as indeed the outsider presented an evil, the outsider, which, as it were, threatened and attacked the things which were thought to bind society together. Outsider and insider, therefore, are the same pieces of one whole, yes? They are yoked together, if I can put it that way, yes? The outsider becomes the mirror, the convex mirror, of the insider, yes? And the insider I doubt could exist without this convex mirror. So I think both are, in effect, linked together as well. Here again, continuity is important in my opinion, and indeed the outsiders, and I want to end with that, were linked. I think that’s a very important realization, which in practice is not always followed; it’s hardly ever followed, yes? They are linked. Jews and homosexuals are linked, for example, for example. Jews were thought to be especially subject to homosexuality, and whenever a Jew in the thirties, for example, reached a prominent position, he was so accused. Let me give you two examples: the German foreign minister in the Weimar Republic, Walther Rathenau (1867-1922), was always thought to be a homosexual and so accused. And much more startling, the Prime Minister of the French Popular Front government in the late thirties, Léon Blum (1872-1950), was always pictured as a cross dresser. Always pictured in a woman’s dress by his enemies. So, the outsiders are together, yes, which I hope I have made clear. As I said, they looked alike – look alike, and are linked together by society itself. Jews were thought to have, and I quote, “a soft weakness of form,” and are therefore in constant risk, not only of madness, but of being homosexuals.

    Gay history, then, to end, cannot just tell us where gays stand in the fabric of society itself, what role they play in society’s self-image, but can also highlight the obstacles which have to be overcome. That seems to me extremely important. I’ve always wondered, especially in the last years as I’ve done this research on male stereotypes, why the women’s movement has never been more concerned with the male stereotype. As long as the male stereotype is still so deep, and again so victorious – in Germany alone there are five thousand body-building parlors, or as I like to say, “body-sculpting,” because it all has to do with male beauty, parlors, yes? It seems to me, that is one real obstacle, not just to women’s emancipation, but to gay emancipation, to the emancipation of all minorities, [obstacles] which have to be overcome.

    I have then dealt, or tried to deal, with factors which make prejudice so effective and long-lasting. There have been, and this is startling, no change in the view of any of these minorities over the last centuries. You can do that by pictures. Look at their caricatures in 1850 and in 1990, and you will see they’re exactly the same, because the male ideal is still with us. They’re exactly the same and they have not vanished, just as the male ideal hasn’t vanished, just as respectability is still with us and has not vanished. And I think that if we have any hope of changing all this, we must know where we stand, and that’s why I’ve given you this mini-lecture today.

     

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