University of Wisconsin–Madison

George L. Mosse

  • George L. Mosse Bibliography

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    WORKS BY GEORGE L. MOSSE

    Prepared by John Tortorice
    Memorial Library, University of Wisconsin, Madison

    (In general, interviews and book reviews are excluded)

    1946

    1. The Idea of Sovereignty in England, from Sir Thomas Smith to Sir Edward Coke, Thesis, Harvard, 1946.
    2. “Thomas Hobbes: Jurisprudence at the Cross-Roads,” in University of Toronto Quarterly, XV, 4, July 1946, pp. 346-355.

    1947

    1. (in collaboration with William H. Seiler), Outline and Sources for a History of Western Civilization. Europe and the United States from the Middle Ages to the Congress of Vienna, Dubuque (Iowa), W.C. Brown Co., 1947, pp. 81.
    2. “The Anti-League: 1844-1846,” in Economic History Review, XVII, 2, 1947, pp. 134-142.
    3. “Change and Continuity in the Tudor Constitution,” in Speculum, XXII, 1, January 1947, pp. 18-28.
    4. (in collaboration with David Hecht), “Liturgical Uniformity and Absolutism in the Sixteenth Century,” in Anglican Theological Review, XXIX, 3, July 1947, pp. 158-166.

    1948

    1. “The Influence of Jean Bodin’s ‘Republic’ on English Political Thought,” in Medievalia et Humanistica, V, 1948, pp. 73-83.

    1949

    1. “Freshman History: Reality or Metaphysics?,” in The Social Studies, XL, 3, March 1949, pp. 99-103.
    2. (in collaboration with Everett W. Hall and John L. McGalliard), “The Humanities at the State University of Iowa,” in The Humanities in General Education, Edited by Earl J. McGrath, Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, pp. 106-136.

    1950

    1. The Struggle for Sovereignty in England, from the Reign of Queen Elizabeth to the Petition of Right, East Lansing, Michigan State College Press, 1950, pp. vi, 191.
    2. The Struggle for Sovereignty in England, from the Reign of Queen Elizabeth to the Petition of Right, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1950, pp. vi, 191. [see n.10]

    1951

    1. (in collaboration with Philip A.M. Taylor), Outline and Sources for a History of Western Civilization. Europe and the United States from the Congress of Vienna to the Present Time, Dubuque (Iowa), Wm. C. Brown, 1951, pp. 86. [see n. 3]

    1952

    1. “Die amerikanische Geschichtsschreibung. Ein Überblick,” in Die Welt als Geschichte, XII, 1952, pp. 264-273.
    2. “Puritanism and Reason of State in Old and New England,” in William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., IX, 1, January 1952, pp. 67-80.
    3. “Sir John Fortescue and the Problem of Papal Power,” in Medievalia et Humanistica, VII, 1952, pp. 89-94.
    4. “Change and Continuity in the Tudor Constitution,” in The Making of English History, Edited by Robert Livigston Schuyler and Herman Ausubel, New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1952, pp. 187-195. [see n. 5]

    1953

    1. The Reformation, New York, Henry Holt & Co., 1953, pp. 101 (Berkshire Studies in European History).

    1954

    1. “The Assimilation of Machiavelli in English Thought: The Casuistry of William Perkins and William Ames,” in Huntington Library Quarterly, XVII, 4, August 1954, pp. 315-326.
    2. “Puritan Political Thought and the ‘Cases of Conscience’,” in Church History, XXIII, 2, June 1954, pp. 109-118.

    1955

    1. “The Christian Statesman,” in History of Ideas Newsletter, I, 2, March 1955, pp. 2-4.
    2. “Puritanism,” in The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Editor-in-chief: Samuel Macauley Jackson, Editor-in-chief of Supplementary Volumes: Lefferts A. Loetscher, Grand Rapids (Mich.), Baker Book House, 1955, pp. 931-933.

    1956

    1. “A Challenge to Phi Eta Sigma,” in Forum of Phi Eta Sigma, January 1956, pp. 22-23.
    2. “The Importance of Jacques Saurin in the History of Casuistry and the Enlightenment,” in Church History, XXV, 3, September 1956, pp. 195-210.

    1957

    1. Calvinism: Authoritarian or Democratic?, New York, Rinehart, 1957, pp. 25 (Source Problems in World Civilization).
    2. The Holy Pretence: A Study in Christianity and Reason of State from William Perkins to John Winthrop, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1957, pp. 159.
    3. “The Image of the Jew in German Popular Culture: Felix Dahn and Gustav Freytag,” in Leo Baeck Institute. Year Book II, London, Secker & Warburg, 1957, pp. 218-227.
    4. “The Pragmatism of Freshman History,” in The Social Studies, XLVIII, 8, December 1957, pp. 289-292.
    5. Europe in Review. Readings and Sources since 1500, Edited with introductions by George L. Mosse [and others], Chicago, Rand McNally, 1957, pp. 573 (Rand McNally History Series).

    1958

    1. “Culture, Civilization and German Anti-Semitism,” in Judaism, VII, 3, Summer 1958, pp. 256-267.

    1959

    1. “The Hope for Germany,” in The Progressive, XXIII, 5, May 1959, pp. 18-21.

    1960

    1. “Puritan Radicalism and the Enlightenment,” in Church History, XXIX, 4, December 1960, pp. 424-439.
    2. The Reformation, [2nd edition], New York, Henry Holt & Co., 1960, pp. vi, 103 (Berkshire Studies in European History). [see n. 17]

    1961

    1. The Culture of Western Europe: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. An Introduction, Chicago, Rand McNally, 1961, pp. 439 (Rand McNally History Series).
    2. “The Mystical Origins of National Socialism,” in Journal of the History of Ideas, XXIII, 1, January-March 1961, pp. 81-96.
    3. “Culture, Civilization and German Anti-Semitism,” in Davar (Buenos Aires), 1961, pp. 47-64. [see n. 29]

    1962

    1. “’German Kultur of European Spirits’: Old Ideology in New Garb,” in The Wiener Library Bulletin, XVI, 3 July 1962, p. 48.
    2. “Le origini mistiche del nazionalsocialismo,” trad. di Alessandro Serpieri, in Il Ponte, XVIII, 1, gennaio 1962, p. 30-40. [see n. 34]

    1963

    1. The Culture of Western Europe: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. An Introduction, London, John Murray, 1963, pp. 437. [see n. 33]
    2. The Reformation, [3rd revised edition], New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963, pp. 136 (Berkshire Studies in European History). [see n. 17]

    1964

    1. The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich, New York, Grosset & Dunlap, 1964, pp. vi, 373.
    2. “The Deputy’s Dilemma,” in The Progressive, XXVIII, 6, June 1964, pp. 38-41.
    3. “Puritanism Reconsidered,” in Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte, LV, 1, 1964, pp. 37-47.
    4. “Romentic and Irrational: Pitfalls of a ‘Non-Political’ Youth Movement,” The Wiener Library Bulletin, XVIII, 3, July 1964, p. 37.
    5. The Intellectual Foundations of National Socialism, Seminar held at Stanford University, European Studies Seminar Center, Autumn 1963, Conducted by George Mosse, Stanford (Calif.), [s.n.], 1964, ca. 150 leaves.
    6. Europe in Review. Readings and Sources since 1500, Edited, with introductions, by George L. Mosse [and others], [Revised edition], Chicago, Rand McNally, 1964, pp. xxiii, 614 (Rand McNally History Series). [see n. 28]
    7. “Puritan Radicalism and the Enlightenment,” in The Role of Religion in Modern European History, Edited by Sidney Alexander Burell, New York, Macmillan, 1964, pp. 65-77. [see n. 31]

    1965

    1. “The Corporate State and the Conservative Revolution in Weimar Germany,” in Gouvernés et gouvernants, 5e partie, Période contemporaine, Recueils de la Société Jean Bodin pour l’histoire comparative des institutions, t. 26, Bruxelles, Editions de la Librairie Encyclopédique, 1965, pp. 213-242.
    2. “Die deutsche Rechte und die Juden,” in Entscheidungsjahr 1932. Zur Judenfrage in der Endphase der Weimarer Republik. Ein Sammelband, herausgegeben von Werner Eugen Mosse unter Mitwirkung von Arnold Paucker, Tübingen, Mohr, 1965, pp. 183-246.

    1966

    1. “Comments,” in Seminar on Preservation and Restoration, Williamsburg (Va.), 1963. Historic Preservation Today, [Essays presented to the Seminar on Preservation and Restoration, Williamsburg, Virginia, September 8-11, 1963, Sponsored by the National Trust for Historic Preservation and Colonial Williamsburg], Charlottesville, Distributed by University Press of Virginia, 1966, pp. 38-42 and 73-77.
    2. “E. Nolte on ‘Three Faces of Fascism’,” in Journal of the History of Ideas, XXVII, 4, October-December 1966, pp. 621-625.
    3. “The Genesis of Fascism,” in “International Fascism 1920-1945,” in Journal of Contemporary History, I, 1, January 1966, pp. 14-26.
    4. “International Fascism 1920-1945,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966, pp. vi, 201 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 1, no. 1). [see n. 50]
    5. “Left Wing Intellectuals between the Wars,” [Edited by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966, pp. 196 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 1, no. 2).
    6. Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural, and Social Life in the Third Reich, Edited by George L. Mosse, Translations by Salvatore Attanasio and others, [1st ed.], New York, Grosset & Dunlap, 1966, pp. xli, 386.
    7. “1914,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966, pp. 210 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 1, no. 3).
    8. “Socialism and War. The Dismissal of Jellicoe. Munich: The Czech Dilemma. Russians in Germany, 1900-1914,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966, pp. 202 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 1, no. 4).
    9. The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich, London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966, pp. viii, 373. [see n. 40]
    10. “International Fascism, 1920-1945,” Edited by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse, New York, Harper & Row, 1966, pp. x, 197 (Journal of Contemporary History, 1. Harper Torchbooks, The Academy Library). [see n. 52]
    11. Internationaler Faschismus, 1920-1945, herausgegeben von Walter Laqueur und George L. Mosse, Munich, Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, 1966, pp. 298. [see n. 52]
    12. “The Left Wing Intellectuals between the Wars, 1919-1939,” Edited by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse, New York, Harper & Row, 1966, pp. 196 (Journal of Contemporary History, 2. Harper Torchbooks, The Academy Library). [see n. 53]
    13. Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural, and Social Life in the Third Reich, Edited by George L. Mosse, Translations by Salvatore Attanasio and others, London, W. H. Allen, 1966, pp. xliii, 386. [see n. 54]
    14. “1914: The Coming of the First World War,” Edited by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse, New York, Harper & Row, 1966, pp. 296 (Journal of Contemporary History, 3. Harper Torchbooks, The Academy Library). [see n. 55]

    1967

    1. “Concluding Remarks,” in “Education and Social Structure,” in Journal of Contemporary History, II, 3, July 1967, pp. 217-220.
    2. “The Influence of the Völkisch Idea on German Jewry,” in Studies of the Leo Baeck Institute, Edited by Max Kreutzberger, New York, Frederik Unger, 1967, pp. 81-115.
    3. “Education and Social Structure,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1967, pp. 220 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 2, no. 3).
    4. “History Today in USA, Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Poland, India, Czechoslovakia, Spain, Holland, Sweden,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1967, pp. 191 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 2, no. 1).
    5. “Literature and Society,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1967, pp. 227 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 2, no. 2).
    6. “Free Speech and the University,” in Madison Select, May 1967, p. 10.
    7. “Religion and Reason of State,” in Interpreting European History, Edited by Brison D. Gooch, Homewood (Ill.), Dorsey Press, 1967, pp. 166-171.
    8. “Education and Social Structure in Twentieth Century,” Edited by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse, New York, Harper & Row, 1967, pp. 218 (Journal of Contemporary History, 6. Harper Torchbooks, The Academy Library). [see n. 65]
    9. “Fascismo internazionale 1920-1945,” in Dialoghi del XX, aprile 1967, pp. 224. [see n. 52]
    10. Kriegsausbruch 1914, “Deutsche Buchausgabe,” des Journal of Contemporary History, herausgegeben von Walter Laqueur und George L. Mosse. Munich, Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, 1967, pp. 309. [see n. 55]
    11. “Literature and Politics in the Twentieth Century,” Edited by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse, New York, Harper & Row, 1967, pp. 219 (Journal of Contemporary History, 5. Harper Torchbooks, The Academy Library). [see n. 67]
    12. “The New History: Trends in Historical Research and Writing since World War II,” Edited by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse, New York, Harper & Row, 1967, pp. 265 (Journal of Contemporary History, 4. Harper Torchbooks, The Academy Library). [see n. 66]

    1968

    1. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger), Europe in the Sixteenth Century, London, Longmans, 1968, pp. xiii, 399 (A General History of Europe).
    2. “Fascism and the Intellectuals,” in The Nature of Fascism: Proceedings of a Conference Held by the Reading University Graduate School of Contemporary European Studies, Edited by Stuart J. Woolf, London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1968, pp. 205-226 (Reading University Studies on Contemporary Europe. Studies in Fascism, 2).
    3. “Houston Stewart Chamberlain,” Introduction to Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, Translated from the German by John Lees, New York, Howard Fertig, 1968, pp. v-lxiii.
    4. “Max Nordau and His ‘Degeneration’,” Introduction to Max Nordau, Degeneration, New York, Howard Fertig, 1968, pp. xv-xxxiv.
    5. “The Middle East,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1968, pp. 273 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 3, no. 3).
    6. “Reappraisals: A New Look at History. The Social Sciences and History,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1968, pp. 252 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 3, no. 2).
    7. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger), Europe in the Sixteenth Century, New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968, pp. xiii, 399 (A General History of Europe). [see n. 75]
    8. “The Genesis of Fascism,” in Fascism: An Anthology, Edited by Nathanael Greene, New York, Crowell, 1968, pp. 3-14. [see n. 51]
    9. The Holy Pretence: A Study in Christianity and Reason of State from William Perkins to John Winthrop, New York, Howard Fertig, 1968, pp. 159. [see n. 25]
    10. Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural, and Social Life in the Third Reich, Edited by George L. Mosse, Translations by Salvatore Attanasio and others, New York, Grosset & Dunlap, 1968, pp. xli, 386. [see n. 54]
    11. Le origini culturali del Terzo Reich, Traduzione di Francesco Saba Sardi, Milan, Il Saggiatore, 1968, pp. 492 (La cultura. Biblioteca di storia, 22). [see n. 40]
    12. The Struggle for Sovereignty in England, from the Reign of Queen Elizabeth to the Petition of Right, New York, Octagon Books, 1968, pp. vi, 191. [see n. 10]

    1969

    1. “History, Anthropology and Mass Movements,” in American Historical Review, LXXV, 2, December 1969, pp. 447-452.
    2. “The Great Depression,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1969, pp. 201 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 4, no. 4).
    3. “Urbanism: The City in History,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1969, pp. 204 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 4, no. 3).
    4. From “The Culture of Western Europe,” in A Century for Debate, 1789-1914: Problems in the Interpretation of European History, Edited by Peter N. Stearns, New York, Dodd, Mead & Co., 1969, pp. 35-39 and 505-511.
    5. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger), L’Europa del Cinquecento, Traduzione di Maria Teresa Grendi, Bari, Laterza, 1969, pp. 533 (Collezione storica). [see n. 75]
    6. “Fascism and the Intellectuals,” in The Nature of Fascism, Edited by Stuart J. Woolf, [1st American Edition], New York, Random House, 1969, pp. 205-226 (Reading University Studies on Contemporary Europe, 2). [see n. 76]
    7. Linksintellektuelle zwischen den beiden Weltkriegen, herausgegeben von Walter Laqueur und George L. Mosse, Munich, Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, 1969, pp. 319 (Sammlung Dialog, 18). [see n. 53]

    1970

    1. Germans and Jews: The Right, the Left, and the Search for a “Third Force” in Pre-Nazi Germany, [1st edition], New York, Howard Fertig, 1970, pp. 260.
    2. “Changes in Religious Thought,” in The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. IV, The Decline of Spain and the Thirty Years War, 1609-48/59, Edited by J.P. Cooper, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1970, pp. 169-201.
    3. “The Heritage of Socialist Humanism,” in “The Legacy of German Refugee Intellectuals,” in Salmagundi, Fall 1969 – Winter 1970, pp. 123-139.
    4. “The Rightist Reaction: French Theorists of Law and Order,” in The Times Literary Supplement, 14 May, 1970, pp. 525-527.
    5. “Generations in Conflict,” [Editors: Walter Laqueur, George L. Mosse; Assistant Editors: Jane Degras, Ernest Hearst], London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1970, pp. 190 (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 5, no. 1).
    6. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger), L’Europe au XVI siècle, Traduit de l’anglais par S. Chassagne, Paris, Sirey, 1970, pp. 392 (Historire de l’Europe, 6). [see n. 75]
    7. “The Genesis of Fascism,” in Manners, Morals, Movements: The History of European Man, 1500 to the Present, Edited by Werner Braatz [and others], Berkeley (Calif.), McCutchan Pub. Corp., 1970, pp. 300-302. [see n. 51]
      101. Kriegsausbruch 1914, herausgegeben von Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse, Munich, Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, 1970, pp. 314 (Sammlung Dialog, 44). [see n. 72]

    1971

    1. “Die Linke in ihrer Stellung zum Nationalsozialismus – das Jüdische Problem,” in Zur Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, [Die zusammenfassende Darstellung der auf der Tagung im Sommer 1970 gehaltenen Vorträge ist von Meir Gilon hebräisch verfasst und von Alisa Michaelis ins Deutsche übersetzt worden], Jerusalem, Jerusalem Acad. Press, 1971, pp. 94-100 (Veröffentlichungen des Leo Baeck Instituts Jerusalem zur Geschichte der Juden in Mitteleuropa).
    2. “Cesarism, Circuses and Monuments,” in Journal of Contemporary History, VI, 2, April 1971, pp. 167-182.
    3. “German Socialists and the Jewish Question in the Weimar Republic,” in Leo Baeck Institute. Year Book XVI, London, Secker & Warburg, 1971, pp. 123-151.
    4. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger), Europe in the Sixteenth Century, London, Longmans, 1971, pp. xiii, 399 (A General History of Europe). [see n. 75]
    5. Germans and Jews: The Right, the Left, and the Search for a “Third Force” in Pre-Nazi Germany, New York, Grosset & Dunlap, 1971, pp. 260. [see n. 94]
    6. Germans and Jews: The Right, the Left, and the Search for a “Third Force” in Pre-Nazi Germany, London, Orbach & Chambers, 1971, pp. 260. [see n. 94]
    7. “Mutamenti nel pensiero religioso,” in Storia del mondo moderno, Vol. IV, La decadenza della Spagna e la Guerra dei trent’anni (1610-1648/59), a cura di J.P. Cooper, Milan, Garzanti, 1971, pp. 190-228. [see n. 95]
    8. “I socialisti tedeschi e la questione ebraica durante la repubblica di Weimar,” in Storia contemporanea, II, n. 1, marzo 1971, pp. 17-52. [see n. 104]
    9. “The Youth Movement,” in Forces of Order and Movement in Europe since 1815, Edited by Robert J. Scally, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1971, pp. 50-70.

    1972

    1. “Literature and Society in Germany,” in Literature and Western Civilization, Edited by David Daiches and Anthony Thorlby, Vol. II, London, Aldus Books, 1972, pp. 267-299.
    2. “The French Right and the Working Classes: Les Jaunes,” in Journal of Contemporary History, VII, 3-4, July-October 1972, pp. 185-208.113. “The Heritage of Socialist Humanism,” in The Legacy of German Refugee Intellectuals, Edited by Robert Boyers, [1st Edition], New York, Schocken Books, 1972, pp. 123-139. [see n. 96]
    3. Kryzys ideologii niemieckiej; rodowód intelektualny Trzeciej Rzeszy, Tlumaczyl Tadeusz Evert, Warszawa, Czytelnik, 1972, pp. 452. [see n. 40]

    1973

    1. “Mass Politics and the Political Liturgy of Nationalism,” in Nationalism: The Nature and Evolution of an Idea, [A series of public lectures arranged by the History of Ideas Unit in the Research School of Social Sciences of the Australian National University], Edited by Eugene Kamenka, Canberra, Australian National University Press, 1973, pp. 38-54.
    2. “Comment,” in “Hitler’s Concept of ‘Lebensraum’: The Psychological Basis,” in History of Childhood Quarterly: The Journal of Psychohistory, I, 2, Fall 1973, pp. 230-232.117. “Left Wing Intellectuals and the Jewish Problem in the ‘Thirties’ and in the ‘Sixties’,” in Dispersion and Unity, XVII-XVIII, 1973, pp. 106-116.
    3. “The Marquis de Morés,” in North Dakota Quarterly, Winter 1973, pp. 44-47.
    4. “The Poet and the Exercise of Political Power: Gabriele D’Annunzio,” in Yearbook of Comparative and General Literature, XXII, 1973, pp. 32-41.
    5. La cultura Nazi: la vida intelectual, cultural y social en el Tercer Reich, Tr. del inglés por J. C. García Borrón y Enrique de Obregón, Barcelona, Grijalbo, 1973, pp. 398. [see n. 54]
    6. “The Genesis of Fascism,” in Western Civilization: Recent Interpretations from 1715 to the Present, Edited by C. Stewart Doty, New York, Thomas Crowell Co., II, 1973, pp. 501-511. [see n. 51]
    7. “The Genesis of Fascism,” in An Age of Controversy: Discussion Problems in 20th Century European History, Edited by Gordon Wright and Arthur mejia (alternate edition), New York, Dodd, Mean & Company, 1973, pp. 168-177. [see n. 51]

    1974

    1. “Was sie wirklich lasen: Marlitt, Ganghofer, May,” in Popularität und Trivialität. 4. Wisconsin Workshop, herausgegeben von Reinhold Grimm und Jost Hermand, Frankfurt/M., Athenäum-Verlag, 1974, pp. 101-120.
    2. “Tod, Zeit, und Geschichte: Die völkische Utopie der Überwindung,” in Deutsches utopisches Denken im 20. Jahrhundert, herausgegeben von Reinhold Grimm und Jost Hermand, Stuttgart-Berlin-Cologne-Mainz, Kohlhammer, 1974, pp. 50-69.
    3. Joshua A. Fishman; George L. Mosse; and Laurene J. Silberstein, Discussants. “Contemporary Jewish Civilization on the American Campus: Research and Teaching,” in American Jewish Historical Quarterly, LXIII, 4, 1974, pp. 369-378.
    4. Historians in Politics, Edited by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse, London-Beverly Hills (Calif.), Sage Publications, 1974, pp. viii, 352 (Sage Readers in 20th Century History, no. 1).
    5. Jews and Non-Jews in Eastern Europe 1918-1945, Edited by Bela Vago and George L. Mosse, [Based on papers presented at the International Symposium on the Interaction between Jews and the Peoples of East-Central Europe, 1918-1945, held at the University of Haifa, 1-4 May 1972], New York, John Wiley / Tel Aviv, Israel Universities Press, 1974, pp. xvii, 334.
    6. The Culture of Western Europe: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, 2nd edition, Rand McNally College Pub. Co., 1974, pp. 410 (Rand McNally History Series). [see n. 33]
    7. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger), Europa en el siglo XVI, Madrid, Aguilar, 1974, pp. 418. [see n. 75]
    8. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger), L’Europa del Cinquecento, Traduzione di Maria Teresa Grendi, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1974, pp. 532 (Universale Laterza. 278). [see n. 75]

    1975

    1. The Nationalization of the Masses: Political Symbolism and Mass Movements in Germany from the Napoleonic Wars through the Third Reich, New York, Howard Fertig, 1975, pp. xiv, 252.
    2. Police Forces in History, Edited by George L. Mosse, London-Beverly Hills (Calif.), Sage Publications, 1975, pp. viii, 333 (Sage Readers in 20th Century History, no. 2).
    3. “On Liars and Lying,” in Salmagundi, Spring 1975, pp. 95-111.
    4. La nazionalizzazione delle masse. Simbolismo politico e movimenti di massa in Germania dalle guerre napoleoniche al Terzo Reich, [Introduzione all’edizione italiana di Renzo De Felice], Traduzione di Livia De Felice, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1975, pp. XIX, 253 (Nuova collana storica). [see n. 131]

    1976

    1. “Die NS-Kampfbühne,” in Geschichte im Gegenwartsdrama, herausgegeben von Reinhold Grimm und Jost Hermand, Stuttgart-Berlin-Cologne-Mainz, Kohlhammer, 1976, pp. 24-36.
    2. “Comment” on “Hitler as the Bound Delegate of His Mother” by Helm Stierlin, in History of Childhood Quarterly: The Journal of Psychohistory, III, 4, 1976, pp. 505-507.
    3. “Albert Speer’s Hitler, Spandau: The Secret Diaries,” in Quadrant, XX, 10, October 1976, pp. 53-55.
    4. “Mass Politics and the Political Liturgy of Nationalism,” in Nationalism: The Nature and Evolution of an Idea, [A series of public lectures arranged by the History of Ideas Unit in the Research School of Social Sciences of the Australian National University], Edited by Eugene Kamenka, New York, St. Martin’s Press, 1976, pp. 38-54. [see n. 115]
    5. “Mass Politics and the Political Liturgy of Nationalism,” in Nationalism: The Nature and Evolution of an Idea, Edited by Eugene Kamenka, London, Edward Arnold, 1976, pp. 38-54. [see n. 115]
    6. Die Nationalisierung der Massen. Die politische Symbolik und Massenbewegung in Deutschland von den Napoleonischen Kriegen bis zum Dritten Reich, Frankfurt/M.-Berlin-Wien, Ullstein, 1976, pp. 283. [see n. 131]
    7. La nazionalizzazione delle masse. Simbolismo politico e movimenti di massa in Germania dalle guerre napoleoniche al Terzo Reich, [Introduzione all’edizione italiana di Renzo De Felice], Traduzione di Livia De Felice, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1976, pp. XIX, 253 (Nuova collana storica). [see n. 131]

    1977

    1. Intervista sul nazismo, A cura di Michael A. Ledeen, Traduzione di Giovanni Ferrara, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1977, pp. 152 (Saggi tascabili Laterza, 35).
    2. The Jews and the German War Experience, 1914-1918, New York, Leo Baeck Institute, 1977, pp. 28 (Leo Baeck Memorial Lecture: 21).
    3. “George Lichtheim: Sketch for an Intellectual Portrait,” in Varieties of Marxism, Edited by S. Avineri, The Van Leer Jerusalem Foundation, Martin Nijhoff, The Hague, 1977, pp. 1-6.
    4. The Nationalization of the Masses: Political Symbolism and Mass Movements in Germany from the Napoleonic Wars through the Third Reich, New York, Meridian, 1977, pp. 270. [see n. 131]
    5. (Michael A. Ledeen, interviewer), “On Nazism,” in Society, XIV, 4, May-June 1977, pp. 69-73. [see n. 142]

    1978

    1. Toward the Final Solution: A History of European Racism, 1st Edition, New York, Howard Fertig, 1978, pp. xvi, 277.
    2. “La sinistra europea e l’esperienza della guerra (Germania e Francia),” in Rivoluzione e reazione in Europa 1917-1924. Convegno storico internazionale (Perugia, 1978), Vol. II, Rome, Mondo operaio-Avanti!, 1978, pp. 151-167.
    3. “Art and Politics in Germany: A Comment,” in Central European History, XI, 2, June 1978, pp. 184-188.
    4. “Norbert Elias: The Civilizing Process,” in New German Critique, 15, Autumn 1978, pp. 178-183.
    5. Der nationalsozialistische Alltag. So lebte man unter Hitler, Königstein/Ts., Athenäum Verlag, 1978, pp. IX, 389. [see n. 54]
    6. Nazism: A Historical and Comparative Analysis of National Socialism, An Interview with Michael A. Ledeen, New Brunswick (N.J.), Transaction Book, 1978, pp. 134 (Issues in Contemporary Civilization).
    7. Nazism: A Historical and Comparative Analysis of National Socialism, An Interview with Michael A. Ledeen, Oxford, Blackwell, 1978, pp. 137 (Issues in Contemporary Civilization).
    8. Rassismus. Ein Krankheitssymptom in der europäischen Geschichte des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, Königstein/Ts., Athenäum Verlag, 1978, pp. 222.
    9. Toward the Final Solution: A History of European Racism, London, Dent & Son, 1978, pp. xii, 277. [see n. 147]

    1979

    156.“Toward a General Theory of Fascism,” in International Fascism: New Thoughts and New Approaches… [see n. 161], pp. 1-41.

    1. L’opera di Aldo Moro nella crisi della democrazia parlamentare in occidente. Intervista a cura di Alfonso Alfonsi, Traduzione di Alfonso Alfonsi e RiccardoDuranti, in Aldo Moro, L’intelligenza e gli avvenimenti. Testi 1959-1978. Con note di Gianni Baget Bozzo, Mario Medici, Dalmazio Mongillo e un intervento di George L. Mosse, a cura della Fondazione Aldo Moro, Milan, Garzanti, 1979, pp. IX-XLVII.

    158.“Hitler Redux,” in The New Republic, CLXXX, 24, June 16, 1979, pp. 21-24.
    159.“National Cemeteries and National Revival: The Cult of the Fallen Soldiers in Germany,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XIV, 1, January 1979, pp. 1-20.

    1. “Arbeiterkultur,” herausgegeben von Gerhard A. Ritter. Überarbeitete deutsche Ausgabe des Heftes “Worker’s Culture” der Journal of Contemporary History, Bd. 13, Nr. 2, April 1978, herausgegeben von Walter Laqueur und George L. Mosse, Königstein/Ts., Hain, 1979, pp. 291 (Neue Wissenschaftliche Bibliothek 104 Geschichte).
    2. International Fascism: New Thoughts and New Approaches, Edited by George L. Mosse, London-Beverly Hills (Calif.), Sage Publications, 1979, pp. 386 (Sage Readers in 20th Century History, no. 3).
    3. Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer. Die völkischen Ursprünge des Nationalsozialismus, Königstein/Ts., Athenäum Verlag, 1979, pp. VII, 368. [see n. 40]

    1980

    1. Masses and Man: Nationalist and Fascist Perceptions of Reality, 1st Edition, New York, Howard Fertig, 1980, pp. xiii, 362.
    2. “Faschismus und Avantgarde,” in Faschismus und Avantgarde, herausgegeben von Reinhold Grimm und Jost Hermand, Königstein/Ts., Athenäum Verlag, 1980, pp. 133-148.
    3. “Soldatenfriedhöfe und nationale Wiedergeburt. Der Gefallenenkult in Deutschland,” in Kriegserlebnis. Der Erste Weltkrieg in der literarischen Gestaltung und symbolischen Deutung der Nationen, herausgegeben von Klaus Vondung, Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1980, pp. 241-261.
    4. (in collaboration with Steven George Lampert), “Weimar Intellectuals and the Rise of National Socialism,” in Survivors, Victims and Perpetrators: Essays on the Nazi Holocaust, Edited by Joel E. Dimsdale, Washington, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 1980, pp. 79-105.
    5. “Zum deutschen Soldatenlied,” in Kriegserlebnis: Der Erste Weltkrieg in der literarischen Gestaltung und symbolischen Deutung der Nationen, herausgegeben von Klaus Vondung, Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1980, pp. 331-333.
    6. “La nationalisation des masses, Gymnastique tir et constitution du sentiment en Allemagne,” in “Aimez vous les Stades?,” in Recherches, 43, Avril 1980, pp. 59-75.
    7. Il razzismo in Europa dalle origini all’Olocausto, Traduzione di Livia De Felice, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1980, pp. XI, 277 (Storia e società). [see n. 147]
    8. Toward the Final Solution: A History of European Racism, New York, Harper Colophon Books, 1980, pp. 235. [see n. 147]

    1981

    1. “War and the Appropriation of Nature,” in Germany in the Age of Total War: Essays in Honour of Francis Carsten, Edited by Volker R. Berghahn and Martin Kitchen, London, Croom Helm / Totowa (N.J.), Barnes & Noble Books, 1981, pp. 102-122.
    2. “Retreat to the Status Quo,” in “Left-Wing Fascism,” in Society, XVIII, 4, May-June 1981, pp. 39-40.
    3. “Amistad y conciencia nacional: Promesa y fracaso de nacionalismo alemán,” in Rumbos, 5, otoño 1981, pp. 29-46.
    4. “Razzismo,” in Enciclopedia del Novecento, Vol. V, Rome, Istituto dell’Enciclopedia Italiana, 1981, pp. 1052-1063.
    5. “Cimiteri nazionali e revival nazionalista: il culto dei caduti in Germania,” in Laboratorio di scienze dell’uomo, I, 2, giugno 1981, pp. 143-160. [see n. 159]
    6. The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich, New York, Schocken Books, 1981, pp. x, 373. [see n. 40]
    7. The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich, New York, Howard Fertig, 1981, pp. vi, 373. [see n. 40]
    8. Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural, and Social Life in the Third Reich, Edited by George L. Mosse, Translations by Salvatore Attanasio and others, New York, Schocken Books, 1981, pp. xli, 386. [see n. 54]

    1982

    1. “The Community in the Thought of Nationalism, Fascism and the Radical Right,” in Community as a Social Ideal, Edited by Eugene Kamenka, London, Edward Arnold, 1982, pp. 27-42.
    2. “Introduction,” in “Sexuality in History,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XVII, 2, April 1982, p. 219.
    3. “Friendship and Nationhood: About the Promise and Failure of German Nationalism,” in “Sexuality in History,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XVII, 2, April 1982, pp. 351-367.
    4. “Nationalism and Respectability: Normal and Abnormal Sexuality in the Nineteenth Century,” in “Sexuality in History,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XVII, 2, April 1982, pp. 221-246.
    5. L’uomo e le masse nelle ideologie nazionaliste, Traduzione di Pietro Negri, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1982, pp. III, 311 (Storia e società). [see n. 163]

    1983

    1. “Gedanken zum deutsch-jüdischen Dialog. Vortrag zur Eröffnung der Gastprofessur für jüdische Geschichte,” in Chronik der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich 1982-1983, Munich, 1982-1983, pp. 48-58.
    2. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger), L’Europa del Cinquecento, Traduzione di Maria Teresa Grendi, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1983, pp. 533 (Biblioteca Universale Laterza. 86). [see n. 91]
    3. “Nationalism and Sexuality in Nineteenth Century Europe,” in Society, XX, 5, July-August 1983, pp. 75-84. [see n. 182]
    4. “Nazionalismo e rispettabilità,” in Prometeo, I, 3, settembre 1983, pp. 22-37. [see n. 182]
    5. The Reformation, Paperbook Press, 1983, pp. 64. [see n. 39]

    1984

    1. Sessualità e nazionalismo. Mentalità borghese e rispettabilità, Traduzione di Andrea Zorzi, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1984, pp. VI, 225 (Storia e società).
    2. “Political Style and Political Theory: Totalitarian Democracy Revisited,” in Totalitarian Democracy and After: International Colloquium in Memory of Jacob L. Talmon. Jerusalem, 21-24 June 1982, Jerusalem, Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities/Magnes Press/Hebrew University, 1984, pp. 1167-1176.
    3. “Berlin und die Moderne,” in Berlin um 1900 (Berliner Festwochen 1984. Programm-Magazin), p. 126.
    4. “Bookburning and the Betrayal of German Intellectuals,” in New German Critique, XI, 1, Winter 1984, pp. 143-155.
    5. “Razzismo e omosessualità: intervista a George L. Mosse,” in Sodoma, I, 1, autunno 1984, pp. 93-101. [an interview by Enzo Cucco]
    6. “Race and Sexuality: Bourgeois Society and the Outsider in the Nineteenth Century,” in Onder Mannen, Onder Vrouwen: Studies van homosociale emancipatie, Sammenstelling: Mattias Duyves, Gert Hekma, Paula Koelemij, Amsterdam, SVA, 1984, pp. 79-91.
    7. La nazionalizzazione delle masse. Simbolismo politico e movimenti di massa in Germania, 1815-1933, Traduzione di Livia De Felice, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1984, pp. 313 (Intersezioni, 9). [see n. 131]
    8. Le origini culturali del Terzo Reich, Traduzione di Francesco Saba Sardi, Milan, Il Saggiatore, 1984, pp. 492 (Catalogo, 33). [see n. 40]

    1985

    1. German Jews beyond Judaism, [Based on the author’s Efroymson Lectures at the Hebrew Union College], Bloomington (Ind.), Indiana University Press / Cincinnati (Ohio), Hebrew Union College Press, 1985, pp. ix, 98 (The Modern Jewish Experience).
    2. “Jewish Emancipation: Between ‘Bildung’ and Respectability,” in The Jewish Response to German Culture: From the Enlightenment to the Second World War, [Essays based on papers delivered at the International Conference on German Jews, held at Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, October 8-11, 1983], Edited by Jehuda Reinharz and Walter Schatzberg, Hanover (N.H.), Published for Clark University Press of New England, 1985, pp. 1-16.
    3. Nationalism and Sexuality: Respectability and Abnormal Sexuality in Modern Europe, 1st [American] Edition, New York, Howard Fertig, 1985, pp. viii, 232. [see n. 189]
    4. “Die Bildungsbürger verbrennen ihre eigenen Bücher,” in Das war ein Vorspiel nur…, herausgegeben von Horst Denkler und Eberhard Lämmert, Berlin, Akademie der Künste, 1985, pp. 143-155. [see n. 192]
    5. Nationalismus und Sexualität. Bürgerliche Moral und sexuelle Normen, aus dem Amerikanischen übersetzt von Jörg Trobitius, Munich, Hanser Verlag, 1985, pp. 271. [see n. 189]
    6. Il razzismo in Europa dalle origini all’Olocausto, Traduzione di Livia De Felice, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1985, pp. 287 (Biblioteca Universale Laterza). [see n. 169]
    7. “La Sécularisation de la théologie juive,” trad. Pascale et Terrenoire Gruson, in Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions, XXX, 6, Juillet-Septembre, 1985, pp. 27-41.
    8. Toward the Final Solution: A History of European Racism, Madison (Wis.), University of Wisconsin Press, 1985, pp. xxx, 277. [see no. 147]

    1986

    1. “Response,” in George Mosse on the Occasion of his Retirement. 17.6.1985, Jerusalem, The Koebner Chair of German History/The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1986, pp. xxvi-xxxiii.
    2. “Rushing to the Colors: On the History of Volunteers in War,” in Religion, Ideology and Nationalism in Europe and America: Essays Presented in Honour of Yehoshoua Arieli, Jerusalem, Historical Society of Israel and Zalman Shazar Center for Jewish History, 1986, pp. 173-184.
    3. “Deutsche Juden und der Liberalismus. Ein Rückblick,” in Das deutsche Judentum und der Liberalismus / German Jewry and Liberalism. Dokumentation eines internationalen Seminars der Friedrich-Naumann-Stiftung in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Leo Baeck Institut, London, St. Augustin, Comdok-Verlagsabteilung, 1986, pp. 173-191.
    4. “Two World Wars and the Myth of the War Experience,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XXI, 4, October 1986, pp. 491-513.
    5. La cultura dell’Europa occidentale nell’Ottocento e nel Novecento, Traduzione di Savino D’Amico, Milan, Mondadori, 1986, pp. 500 (Saggi). [see n. 33]

    1987

    1. “Der Erste Weltkrieg und die Brutalisierung der Politik. Betrachtungen über die politische Rechte, den Rassismus und den deutschen Sonderweg,” in Demokratie und Diktatur. Geist und Gestalt politischer Herrschaft in Deutschland und Europa. Festschrift für Karl Dietrich Bracher, herausgegeben von Manfred Funke, Hans-Adolf Jacobsen, Hans-Helmuth Knütter, Hans-Peter Schwarz, Düsseldorf, Droste, 1987, pp. 127-139.
    2. “Zu Hause in der Maaßenstraße,” in 750 Jahre Berlin. Ammerkungen, Erinnerungen, Betrachtungen, herausgegeben von Eberhard Diepgen, Berlin, Nicolai, 1987, pp. 226-230.
    3. “Anatomy of a Stereotype,” in New German Critique, 42, Fall 1987, pp. 163-168.
    4. “Schönheit ohne Sinnlichkeit. Nationalsozialismus und Sexualität,” in “1937. Europa vor dem 2. Weltkrieg,” in Zeitmitschrift, Sonderheft 1987, pp. 96-109.
    5. La cultura dell’Europa occidentale nell’Ottocento e nel Novecento, Traduzione di Savino D’Amico, 2. Milan, Mondadori, 1987, pp. 500 (Saggi). [see n. 33]
    6. Germans and Jews: The Right, the Left, and the Search for a “Third Force” in Pre-Nazi Germany, Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1987, pp. 260. [see n. 94]
    7. “German Jews and Liberalism in Retrospect. Introduction to Year Book XXXII,” in Leo Baeck Institute Year Book XXXII, London, Secker & Warburg, 1987, pp. xiii-xxv. [see n. 207]
    8. Masses and Man: Nationalist and Fascist Perceptions of Reality, Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1987, pp. xii, 362. [see n. 163]
    9. Nationalismus und Sexualität. Bürgerliche Moral und sexuelle Normen, aus dem Amerikanischen übersetzt von Jörg Trobitius, Hamburg, Rowohlt, 1987. [see n. 189]

    1988

    1. “Futurismo e culture politiche in Europa: una prospettiva globale,” in Futurismo, cultura e politica, [Raccoglie I saggi nati dalle relazioni presentate al Convegno organizzato dalla Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli a Venezia, 15-16 maggio 1986], A cura di Renzo De Felice, Turin, Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli, 1988, pp. 13-29.
    2. “Die lückenlose Geschichte. Ernst Noltes Antwort auf seine Kritiker,” in Ein Büchertagebuch. Buchbesprechungen aus der Frankfurter Allgemeinen Zeitung, Frankfurt, F.A.Z., 1988, pp. 425-427.
    3. “Homosexualité et fascisme français,” in Société, 17 Mars 1988, pp. 14-16.
    4. “The End Is Not Yet: A Personal Memoir of the German-Jewish Legacy in America,” in American Jewish Archives, XL, 2, November 1988, pp. 177-201.
    5. “Wagner, the Ring and History,” in Skript, X, 4, Winter 1988, pp. 287-288.
    6. The Culture of Western Europe: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, 3rd revised and enlarged edition, Boulder (Col.), Westview Press, 1988, pp. 430. [see n. 33]
    7. Il dialogo ebraico-tedesco: da Goethe a Hitler, Traduzione di Daniel Vogelmann, Firenze, Giuntina, 1988, pp. 124 (Collana Schulim Vogelmann, 20). [see n. 197]
    8. Nationalism and Sexuality: Middle Class Morality and Sexual Norms in Modern Europe, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1988, pp. x, 232. [see n. 199]
    9. La nazionalizzazione delle masse. Simbolismo politico e movimenti di massa in Germania (1815-1933), Traduzione di Livia De Felice, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1988, pp. 312 (Intersezioni, 9). [see n. 131]228. L’uomo e le masse nelle ideologie nazionaliste, Traduzione di Pietro Negri, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1988, pp. 309 (Biblioteca Universale Laterza. 248). [see n. 163]

    1989

    1. “L’autorappresentazione nazionale negli anni Trenta negli Stati Uniti e in Europa,” in L’estetica della politica. Europa e America negli anni Trenta, a cura di Maurizio Vaudagna, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1989, pp. 3-23.
    2. “National Anthems: The Nation Militant,” in From Ode to Anthem. Problems of Lyric Poetry, Edited by Reinhold Grimm and Jost Hermand, Madison (Wis.), Published for Monatshefte [by] The University of Wisconsin Press, 1989, pp. 86-100.
    3. “Fascism and the French Revolution,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XXIV, 1, January 1989, pp. 5-26.
    4. “Il canto della patria,” in Prometeo, VIII, 29, marzo 1990, pp. 14-21. [see n. 230]
    5. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger and Gerard Q. Bowler), Europe in the Sixteenth Century, 2nd revised and enlarged edition, London/New York, Longman, 1989, pp. 539. [see n. 75]
    6. Toward the Final Solution: A History of European Racism, Tel Aviv, Everyman Publishers, 1989. [see n. 147]

    1990

    1. Fallen Soldiers: Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars, New York, Oxford University Press, 1990, pp. vi, 264.
    2. “Das deutsch-jüdische Bildungsbürgertum im 19. Jahrhundert,” in Bildungsbürgertum im 19. Jahrhundert, herausgegeben von Werner Conze und Jürgen Kocka, Teil 2, Bildungsgüter und Bildungswissen, herausgegeben von Reinhart Koselleck, Stuttgart, Klett-Cotta, 1990, pp. 168-180.
    3. “New Left Intellectuals/New Left Politics,” in History and the New Left. Madison, Wisconsin, 1950-1970, Edited by Paul Buhle, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1990, pp. 233-238.
    4. “Fascism and the French Revolution,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XXIV, 1, January 1990, pp. 5-26.
    5. “Gershom Scholem as a German Jew,” in Modern Judaism, X, 2, May 1990, pp. 117-132.
    6. “Medicine and Murder,” in Studies in Contemporary Jewry, VI, 1990, pp. 315-320.
    7. “Racism,” in Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, New York, 1990, pp. 1206-1217.
    8. “The Political Culture of Italian Futurism: A General Perspective,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XXV, 2-3, April-July 1990, pp. 253-268.
    9. (in collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger and Gerard Q. Bowler), L’Europa del Cinquecento, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1990, pp. VIII, 575. [see n. 75]
    10. Le guerre mondiali. Dalla tragedia al mito dei caduti, Traduzione di Giovanni Ferrara, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1990, pp. VIII, 284 (Storia e società). [see n. 235]
    11. Rassismus. Ein Krankheitssymptom in der europäischen Geschichte des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, Fischer Taschenbuch, 1990. [see n. 154]

    1991

    1. “Ich bleibe Emigrant.” Gespräche mit George L. Mosse, herausgegeben von Irene Runge und Uwe Stelbrink, Berlin, Dietz, 1991, pp. 121.
    2. “Beauty without Sensuality: The Exhibition Entartete Kunst,” in “Degenerate Art”: The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany, Edited by Stephanie Barron, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1991, pp. 25-31.
    3. “Über Kriegserinnerungen und Kriegsbegeisterung,” in Kriegsbegeisterung und mentale Kriegsvorbereitung. Interdisziplinäre Studien, herausgegeben von Marcel van der Linden und Gottfried Mergner unter Mitarbeit von Herman de Langen, Berlin, Duncker & Humblot, 1991, pp. 27-36.
    4. “’Fin de siècle’: Challenge and Response,” in Bijdragen en medelingen betreffende de geschiedenes der Nederlanden, CVI, 4, 1991, pp. 573-580.
    5. “Rescuing Marxism,” in Salmagundi, Fall 1990 – Winter 1991, pp. 510-514.
    6. “The United States: The Dominance of Cultural History,” in La Grande Guerre. Pays, Histoire, Mémoire. Bulletin de recherche, 3, février 1991, pp. 8-9.
    7. “George L. Mosse over de Duitslanden en de Duitsers,” in Spiegel Historiael, XXVI, 4, April 1991, pp. 187-192. [interview by Martijn van Leishout]
    8. The Nationalization of the Masses: Political Symbolism and Mass Movements in Germany from the Napoleonic Wars through the Third Reich, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1991, pp. xiv, 252 (Cornell paperbacks). [see n. 131]
    9. Le origini culturali del Terzo Reich, Traduzione di Francesco Saba Sardi, 3. Edizione, Milan, Il Saggiatore, 1991, pp. 492. [see n. 40]
    10. Die völkische Revolution. Über die geistigen Wurzeln des Nationalsozialismus, Frankfurt/M., Anton Hain Verlag, 1991, pp. VII, 368. [see n. 40]
    11. Ebrei in Germania fra assimilazione e antisemitismo, Traduzione di Paola e Cristina Candela, Firenze, Giuntina, 1991, pp. 273 (Collana Schulim Vogelmann, 26). [see n. 94]

    1992

    1. “The Jews and the Civil Religion of Nationalism,” in The Impact of Western Nationalisms… [see n. 254], pp. 319-330.
    2. “Gli ebrei e il nazionalismo,” in Nuova Antologia, 2181, gennaio-marzo 1992, pp. 63-73.
    3. “Max Nordau, Liberalism and the New Jew,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XXVII, 4, October 1992, pp. 565-581.
    4. The Impact of Western Nationalisms: Essays Dedicated to Walter Z. Laqueur on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday, Edited by Jehuda Reinharz and George L. Mosse, London/Newbury Park (Calif.), Sage Publications, 1992, pp. viii, 336.
    5. “Schönheit ohne Sinnlichkeit. Die Ausstellung ‘Entartete Kunst’,” in “Entartete Kunst.” Das Schicksal der Avantgarde im Nazi-Deutschland, herausgegeben von Stephanie Barron, Munich, Hirmer, 1992, pp. 25-32. [see n. 247]
    6. “Gli ebrei e la religione civica del nazionalismo,” in Stato nazionale ed emanicipazione ebraica, A cura di Francesca Sofia e Mario Toscano, Rome, Bonacci, 1992, pp. 143-154. [see n. 257]
    7. Jüdische Intellektuelle in Deutschland. Zwischen Religion und Nationalismus, mit einer Einleitung von Alida Assmann, aus dem Englischen von Christine Spelsberg, Frankfurt/Main, Campus Verlag, 1992, pp. 144 (Edition Pandora, 1). [see n. 197]
    8. Il razzismo in Europa. Dalle origini all’Olocausto, Traduzione di Livia De Felice, Milan, Mondadori, 1992, pp. XII, 288 (Oscar Saggi, 304). [see n. 147]

    1993

    1. Confronting the Nation: Jewish and Western Nationalism, Hanover (N.H.) and London, Published [for] Brandeis University Press by University Press of New England, 1993, pp. 220 (The Tauber Institute for the Study of European Jewry Series; 16).
    2. “Deutscher Patriotismus und jüdischer Nationalismus,” in Deutschlands Weg in die Moderne. Politik, Gesellschaft und Kultur im 19. Jahrhundert. In memoriam Thomas Nipperdey, herausgegeben von Wolfgang Hardtwig und Harm-Hinrich Brandt, Munich, C. H. Beck, 1993, pp. 161-170.
    3. “Virilità e decadentismo,” in Sodoma, VI, 5, primavera 1993, pp. 91-101.
    4. “Il dibattito sul neo-nazismo,” in Nuova Antologia, 2186, Aprile-Giugno 1993, pp. 16-19.
    5. Gefallen für das Vaterland. Nationales Heldentum und namenloses Sterben, Stuttgart, Klett-Cotta, 1993, pp. 311. [see n. 235]
    6. Intervista sul nazismo, A cura di Michael A. Ledeen, Traduzione di Giovanni Ferrara, Milan, Mondadori, 1993, pp. 156 (Oscar Bestsellers saggi, 66). [see n. 142]
    7. “Max Nordau and His ‘Degeneration’, Introduction to Max Nordau,” in Degeneration, Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1993, pp. Viii-xxxiii. [see n. 78]
    8. Der nationalsozialistische Alltag, Frankfurt/Main, Anton Hain Verlag, 1993. [see n. 54]

    1994

    1. “Masculinity and the Decadence,” in Sexual Knowledge, Sexual Science, Edited by Roy Porter and Mikulás Teich, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1994, pp. 251-266.
    2. “Souvenir de la guerre et place du monumentalisme dans l’identité culturelle du National-Socialisme,” in Guerre et Cultures 1914-1918, Ed. Jean-Jacques Becker et al., Paris, Armand Colin, 1994, pp. 278-286.
    3. “The Knights of the Sky,” in War: A Cruel Necessity?, Edited by R. A. Hinde, London, I.B. Tauris & Co., 1994, pp. 132-142.276. “La guerre et l’identité culturelle du National-Socialisme,” in Vingtième Siècle, 41, Janvier-Mars 1994, pp. 51-59.
    4. “National Socialism, Nudity and the Male Body,” in CultureFront, III, 1, Winter-Spring 1994, pp. 89-92.
    5. Le origini culturali del Terzo Reich, Traduzione di Francesco Saba Sardi, Milan, Il Saggiatore, 1994, pp. 492. [see n. 40]
    6. The Nationalization of the Masses: Political Symbolism and Mass Movements in Germany, from the Napoleonic Wars through the Third Reich, Tokyo, Takunisato, 1994. [see n. 131]
    7. Fallen Soldiers: Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars, Tel Aviv, Am Oved, 1994. [see n. 235]

    1995

    1. “Estetica fascista e societè: considerazioni,” in Il Regime fascista, Ed. A. del Boca, M. Legmani, M. G. Rossi, Rome/Bari, Laterza, 1995, p. 1.
    2. “Männlichkeit und der Grosse Weltkrieg,” in So ist der Mensch. 80 Jahre Erster Weltkrieg, Vienna, Eigenverlag der Museen der Stadt Wien, 1995, pp. 57-69.
    3. “1915-18: La Madre di tutti gli stermini,” in Panorama, 25 May 1995, vol. XXVII, pp. 127-134.
    4. “Racism and Nationalism,” in Nations and Nationalism, I, 2, 1995, pp. 21-31.
    5. Can Nationalism Be Saved? About Zionism Rightful and Unjust Nationalism, The Weizman Lecture in the Humanities, Weizman Institute, Jerusalem, Nov. 5, 1995, pp. 19.

    1996

    1. The Image of Man: The Creation of Modern Masculinity, New York, Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 232.
    2. Il fascismo: verso una teoria generale, Rome, Laterza, 1996, pp. 86.
      288. “Manliness and the Great War,” in Genocide, War and Human Survival, ed. Charles B. Strozier and Michael Flynn, Lanham, Md., Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 1996, pp. 165-175.
    3. “Fascist Aesthetics and Society, Some Considerations,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XXXI, 2, April 1996, pp. 245-252.
    4. “Central European Intellectuals in Palestine,” in Judaism, XLV, 2, Spring 1996, pp. 131-142.
    5. “Il declino della morale,” in Prometeo, XIV, 53, March 1996, pp. 6-13.
    6. “Max Nordau, le Libéralisme et le Nouveau Juif,” in Max Nordau, Ed. Delphine Bechtel, Dominque Bourel, Jacques le Rider, Paris, Les Editions du Cerf, 1996, pp. 11-29.
    7. “Les deux Guerres de George Mosse,” in L’Histoire, 199, May 1996, pp. 13-14. [interview by Bruno Cabanes]
    8. German Jews beyond Judaism, Tokyo, Kashana, 1996. [see n. 197]
    9. “Zu Hause in der Maaßenstraße,” in Jüdische Korrespondenz, V, 7-8, July/August 1996, p. 1. [see n. 211]
    10. “Ist der Nationalismus noch zu retten? Über gerechtfertigten und ungerechtfertigten Nationalismus,” in Responsibility and Commitment, Festschrift für Jost Hermand, Ed. Klaus Berghahn et al., Frankfurt am Main, Peter Lang, 1996. [see n. 285]

    1997

    1. “Politisches Erwachen, Berlin, das Exil und die antifaschistische Bewegung,” in Die Erfahrung des Exils, herausgegeben von Wolfgang Benz und Marion Neiss, Berlin, Metropol Verlag, 1997, pp. 67-82.
    2. “The Universal Meaning of the Concept of Bildung,” in Zmanin, published by the School of History at Tel Aviv University, XVI, 61, Winter 1997-98, pp. 6-10.
    3. “Zionism at 100: The God that Did Not Fail,” (Symposium) in The New Republic, CCXVII, 10-11, September 8 and 15, 1997, pp. 19-20.
    4. The Culture of Western Europe: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, with a new preface, Barcelona, Ariel Historia, 1997 (XIX Century only). [see n. 33]
    5. Das Bild des mannes, Zur Konstruktion der modernen männlichkeit, Frankfurt, Fisher Verlag, 1997, pp. 284. [see n. 286]
    6. L’immagine dell’uomo, lo stereotipo maschile nell’epoca moderna, Turin, Einaudi, 1997. [see n. 286]
    7. The Image of Man, The Creation of Modern Masculinity, Korea, Moonye Publishing, 1997. [see n. 286]
    8. La imagen del hombre, La creación de la mascalinidad moderna, Barcelona, Talasa Editiones, 1997. [see n. 286]
    9. L’Image del’homme, L’invention de la virilité moderne, Paris, Abbeville Press, 1997. [see n. 286]
    10. “Can Nationalism Be Saved? About Zionism Rightful and Unjust Nationalism,” in Israel Studies, II, 1, Spring 1997, pp. 156-173. [see n. 285]

    1998

    1. “Razzismo e nazionalismo in Europa,” in Integrazione e identità, l’esperienza ebraica in Germania e Italia dall’illuminismo al fascismo, Ed. Mario Toscano, Milan, Franco Agnelli, 1998, pp. 236-243.
    2. “De Felice e il Revisionismo Storico,” in Nuova Antologia, CXIII, April-June, 1998, pp. 177-186.
    3. “Ein Besuch in Salem nach langer Zeit,” in Salem College–Salem 1998, pp. 35-36.
    4. The Crisis of German Ideology: The Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich, New York, Howard Fertig, 1998. [see n. 40]
    5. The Crisis of German Ideology: The Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich, Tokyo, Kasiva Shobo, 1998. [see n. 40]
    6. “Le origini occulte del nazionalsocialismo,” in I viaggi di erodoto, XII, 35, septembre-novembre, 1998, pp. 24-39. [see n. 34]

    1999

    1. The Fascist Revolution, Toward a General Theory of Fascism, New York, Howard Fertig, 1999.
    2. “America 1939-42,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XXXIV, 3, July 1999, pp. 443-456.
    3. “Dankesworte,” in Grußworte und Vorträge anläßlich der Verleihung der Ehrendoktorwürde an George L. Mosse am 6. November 1998. Herausgegeben vom Rektor der Universität-Gesamthochschule Siegen, pp. 35-37. Siegen: presse- und Informationsstelle.
    4. Fallen Soldiers: Shaping the Memory of the World Wars, Paris, Hachette, 1999. [see n. 235]

    2000

    1. Confronting History: The Memoirs of George L. Mosse, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 2000.
    2. “Shell-shock as a Social Disease,” in Journal of Contemporary History, XXXV, 1, January 2000, pp. 101-108.
    3. Europe in the Sixteenth Century, 2nd revised and expanded edition, London/New York, Longman, 2000. [see n. 75] (In collaboration with Helmut Georg Koenigsberger and Gerard Q. Bowler)
    4. De la Grande Guerre au totalitarisme, la brutalisation des sociétés européenes, Paris, Hachette Littératures, 2000, pp. 291. [see n. 235]

     

  • 1996 - Why Gay History?

    Why Gay History?
    A talk given by Prof. George L. Mosse
    Madison, Wisconsin-March 30, 1996

    I do not want to talk in abstractions today, but rather use a concrete example to illustrate why the study of Gay history can help us not only to understand our past but also point to the future, to the nature of the obstacles which have to be overcome on the road to equality, not just ill will, stupidity, homophobia – such words must be given substance, a proper dimension to be meaningful, they must be situated within their context. Only in this way can we know what obstacles have to be overcome.

    Stick People Productions

    It was in the twentieth century that the repression and persecution of homosexuals reached it’s most virulent form. My concrete and relevant example will be the most severe persecution of homosexuals in modern times, namely that of the National Socialists in Germany. I am not concerned here with how many died or with Gay life ( such as there was) under the Nazis, but rather with the context of persecution- it is this that seems important in the long run. And though after 1933 Gays were actively persecuted and condemned to death unless they could prove that they had mended their ways, the Nazis here as elsewhere invented nothing new, but merely took the hopes and fears of society and brought them to their extreme boiling point. The very success of National Socialism was that it worked in familiar contexts, used already present traditions, and worked with already existing prejudices.

    When we look at Gay persecution, it seems of little importance that homosexuals provided less the 1% of the population of Concentration Camps, but rather that we still face problems endemic to modern society which the Nazis could exploit so well. The bottom line of the Nazi persecution is not just what it can tell us about National Socialism, but about the society in which the persecution was set, and which in its essentials is still with us today.

    At the time, and until relatively recently, the Nazis were regarded as opponents of bourgeois society, their leader supposedly a working class house painter- thugs without any education, indulging in objectionable behavior. And indeed their speeches and writings did attack the fat, rich and cowardly bourgeoisie. In Hitler’s speeches bourgeois meant indecision, whimpiness, and unsoldierly, unmanly behavior. Nothing in these tirades touched on bourgeois respectability, an image the Nazis were keen to project. Respectability, meaning good manners, behavior, normative sexuality and gender division, was the mirror through which society saw and defined itself. All this is thoroughly documented through anti-pornography and prostitution legislation, legislation against all nudism that was implemented almost immediately after the Nazis attained power.

    But what has this to do with our own fate?

    If one looks at all those whom the Nazis persecuted an important pattern emerges. Les us take as an example a proposed law of 1943 called the “Law for the treatment of those unable to sustain a community.” Note the basic accusation: Who are they? Those who refuse to work, vagrants, the permanently dissatisfied, the disabled, beggars, the mentally impaired and homosexuals. Jews and Gypsies must be added to that list. What do all of these have in common?

    They represent the exact opposite of the ideals society is supposed to stand for: the work ethic, being settled, moderation and control over one’s passions, and especially control of one’s sexuality. Moreover, all these virtues are not merely inward aspects of character; most important, they leave their mark on the body and the face. It was assumed that one could at a glance distinguish between the virtuous and those without virtue; that their appearance gave them away. This is especially important for us, as the Nazis regarded themselves as a “male state,” a Mannerstaat, and the male body became an all present symbol of the regime. Not any male body, but one corresponding to an ideal of male beauty which had become normative and whose origins lay in a Greek ideal as seen through the eighteenth-century German art historian Winckelmann; a male body that is harmonious, a vision of quiet strength with no surplus fat or sudden motions. This male body mirrored the ideals of society: it reconciled order with dynamic tension and moderation, an image of harmony in a world that always seemed at the brink of chaos.

    Those who could not sustain a community are the exact opposite of the ideal: disproportionate, their passions out of control, no moderation, always in motion. Moreover, all such outsiders look essentially alike. Caricatures are important here, the stereotypes they picture determine to a large degree how insiders and outsiders are viewed by society. The Nazis wanted to free society from those who had always been marginalized as sick and unmanly.

    Though Gays were said to be unable to sustain a community, they nonetheless were accused of forming a community among themselves. This community was, once again, the very opposite of the norm, the foil of a true state: it worked not in the open but by conspiracy, it did not fight openly like men, but instead, subverted and undermined. In short, Gays were a menace not just because of their illness which like all serious illnesses could be infective, but because they formed a hidden state within the state, and so endangered the nation. The same identical accusation was leveled against the Jews; here all outsiders shared a common fate.

    And Gay history confronts all of this.

    Starting in the nineteenth century homosexuality was thought to be a neurotic illness (Jews also were thought to be especially susceptible to insanity). Here immoderation, excitement, bodily contortions are also shared traits of all outsiders. But what did “elimination” mean? Normative society marginalized, excluded and even imprisoned, but it did not think to exterminate whole groups of the population- surely an important difference.

    What then gave National Socialism it sharp edge, its willingness to erase these outsiders, which meant completely eliminating them from society?

    Racism made the difference, and though it did not seem to affect Gays directly, -most, after all, were Aryans, -it did affect them nevertheless. Racism like National Socialism did not invent anything new but worked with the already existing prejudices of society; it gave them a much more decisive focus. For in racism nothing was vague and indeterminate, all was concretized around stereotypes, familiar symbols which could be seen and touched. Every book which seeks to explain and advocate racism is first and foremost a picture book. Stereotypes, after all, came alive for National Socialism not only through sculpture or in pictures but also through the familiar human form, the so-called “Aryan looks” which were so much prized. The stereotypes of insider and outsider are opposed to each other, the superior race and the inferior races.

    Where do Gays fit in here?

    They play a different role than Jews or Gypsies who were clearly stigmatized as an inferior race unable to sustain community. That was not a possible classification for Gays who could after all be Aryans and belong to the superior race. Here an older medical distinction was useful, that between “real” homosexuals and those who only pretended to be homosexuals, who had become gay through being seduced in their youth. Those Gays who followed their true, inherited, bent “raised decadence to a principle” they were the sworn enemies, traitors to their race as Heinrich Himmler put it. If it is true that 10% of all Germans are Homosexuals, he continued, then the German people will die. Here as in the case of Jews and Gypsies the analogy was made to an infectious illness with deadly consequences. This was telling in an age ever more concerned with matters of health, and which had reason to fear plagues like Syphilis, Hitler’s own peculiar nightmare

    It was typical that Gays in occupied countries like Holland or France were not really persecuted, for it was only proper that lesser peoples were left to be destroyed from within. Thus in France known homosexual collaborators like Bonnard or Cocteau, for example were not touched.

    But here a problem enters which has been considered a taboo up to now: the certain attraction which National Socialism had for some prominent Gay’s. The self consciously male state, male bonding, male beauty- all this made its mark here as well. Self hatred must also be considered here. In the prospectus for a proposed Homo Monument in Berlin to those persecuted by the Nazis, it would be appropriate to mention that homosexuals could be perpetrators as well as victims. However, this is very difficult to verify or quantify. There is no reason to believe this was a widespread phenomenon. However, Der Eigene – the first homosexual journal published in Germany on a regular basis and founded in 1903- was nationalist and even racist. But Nazis closed it down nevertheless.

    We should remember that throughout the modern age the outsider always wanted to become an insider and it was no different for Gay’s. But here too Nazis brought out the extremes: some Gays assimilated to an overtly hostile regime which however, wanted not only to erase not all homosexuals but homosexuality itself.

    It is all the more distressing that even anti-Nazis and anti-fascists treated the existence of homosexuals in a manner which did not differ at all, but was identical with the Nazis own image of Gays, The Nazi leadership was pictured as a coterie of homosexuals, a perception which was encouraged by the Nazi’s self proclaimed image as a male state. Anti-fascist literature made the most of this accusation, even though some of its authors were privately ambivalent. Thus Klaus Mann who had cause to complain, wrote that ” the homosexuals are the Jews of the anti-fascists.” The Communists also lent strong support to denigrating and persecuting homosexuals( the Nazis after all, had depicted them as lacking respectability). Bertold Brecht made Hitler out to be a homosexual, and from Soviet Russia Maxim Gorki wrote, that “if you exterminate the homosexuals, fascism will vanish.”

    Such propaganda was certainly a good means to discredit the Nazis in the eyes of respectable people. But homosexuals themselves joined in this effort, and this illustrates the extent to which during these pre-war years the focus was upon the defeat of the Nazis at all costs- here the means evidently justified the ends. But in addition it can demonstrate the power and scope of the anti-Gay prejudice: Gays themselves believed in their stereotype and tried to overcome it (just, once again like the Jews). They unthinkingly joined in this anti-fascist propaganda.

    The history of Gay persecution under the Nazis, thus, is not a simple tale of numbers and camps, but has much deeper roots. To be sure, many, perhaps, most gays escaped: they faked a cure which could be done even in the camps. Moreover, Gays were freed by the judiciary if not enough evidence was forthcoming. ( often gays were re-arrested on leaving the court house), for during most of the Nazi regime the judiciary functioned normally.

    But above all Gays disguised their real nature, and they could do it much more successfully, then, say, the Jews, for they had ample practice in masking themselves, taking on and even championing what society regarded as normal. At every turn Gays confronted the ideals of normative society: they both were able to join if properly disguised, and at the same time were the victims of those very ideals.

    Here I must repeat what I said at the beginning: The Nazi persecution basically continued the traditional, already existing, policy of marginalization, of seeing homosexuality as the enemy of normative society. Perhaps our society always needs an enemy for its own self affirmation, and finds it in those who are perceived to be different. Racism transformed discrimination into a struggler of life and

    death; it brutalized all it touched through its concept of an unending, permanent, war. Gays became foils in that war, not all of them, but those believed to be true homosexuals. Racism always thought in stereotypes and not in terms of individuals, and here it wanted to erase homosexuality but not those homosexuals who could be cured. The metaphor of disease was uppermost, one which was familiar and readily understood.

    But, above all, homosexuality had become a metaphor, a lightening rod, for the fears of modernity, all present in the perception of gays, in the Gay stereotype, in pictures and in people’s minds. The frightening speed of time, the uncertainty, the rapidity of change as opposed to the security of tradition, led to people to seek shelter in the normative, the familiar, and the solid. The outsider was always the foil. Homosexuals could pass, as other minorities could not, but they also cut at the root of our society, endangering gender division and respectability.

    Why then Gay history?

    So that we can learn- perhaps even from the extreme experience which I have talked about- that basic to the desire for extermination, in this case as in others, are traditional concepts of sickness and health, of virtue and vice. Racism made prejudice deadly, but it could not have worked without exploiting the existing trends and fears of respectable society. Racism is not just directed against blacks or Jews or Gypsies, but serves to give a deadly cast to society’s traditional ideals and conventions. These ideals in modern times were always regarded as under siege, though in reality they are familiar and generally accepted as the cement of society.

    This then is what Gays basically still face today as they did then – both as temptation and as the foe- though the frontiers of the permissible have been extended to an extent unimaginable earlier. The question is how much the foundations upon which our society rests, and which I have mentioned so often, have shifted. Therefore attention must still be paid to the traditional obstacles to true emancipation. Basic in turn are the stereotypes which serve to define insiders and outsiders, for we live in a visually centered age.

    To be sure, we must fight the day to day battles, but the study of Gay History can get us to confront the underlying factors which drive the persecution itself. These are not always on the surface or found in the heat of the moment, but are found in our society’s self image and its defensive posture. These factors have in the last years allowed a greater room for Gay emancipation, and yet it is highly doubtful whether the tempo and confusion of modernity will cease and with it the search for security- the traditional and the familiar which has always been so attractive to most people, but can be deadly for those like Gays who are not only different, but whose difference challenges the very pillars upon which respectability rests.

    The Nazis had a hierarchy of evil with the Jews as the driving force. But “incurable” Gays were close to the top of their list of enemies. Both were connected for the Nazis, as indeed the “outsider” presented an evil chain which bound humanity. Both are to quote Morel in his essay on Degeneration (1857), “morbid derivations from an original type.” Here again there is continuity and a fringe opinion becomes central: The number of Jewish homosexuals was thought to be extraordinarily high. Jews are feminized, unmanly, have a “soft weakness of form” and are therefore at risk of being homosexual.

    When a prominent Jew, Walter Rathenau, unmarried, became German foreign minister, the accusation of homosexuality went into high gear, while French Prime Minister Leon Blum was pictured as a cross dresser.

    Gay history can not only tell were Gays stand in the fabric of society itself, what role they play in society’s self image, but it can also highlight the obstacles which we have to overcome, the factors which make prejudice so effective and long lasting.

    There has been little change in the perception of Gays for over a century, in how they are perceived and pictured. If we want to change all that we must know where we stand.